Sophomore Biology Midter

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Sophomore Biology Midter
2011-01-18 15:11:42

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  1. Nucleus
    Center of the atom, composed of neutrons and protons
  2. Electron
    negatively charged particle in constant motion around the nucleus
  3. Isotope
    atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
  4. Compound
    a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elementts in different proportions
  5. Ionic Bond
    one or more electrons are lost or gained
  6. Covalent Bond
    electrons shared between atoms
  7. Proton
    positively charged subatomic particles
  8. Neutron
    neutral subatomic particles
  9. Atomic Number
    determined by the number of protons
  10. atomic mass
    protons plus neutrons
  11. The particles that make up atoms are
    protons, neutrons and electrons
  12. If an atom contains 11 protons and 12 neutrons, its atomic number is -
  13. What makes up a molecule of water?
    two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen
  14. A covalent bond is formed as a result of-
    sharing an electron pair
  15. What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?
  16. The most abundant compoun in most living things is-
  17. A solution is a(n) -
    evenly distributed mixture of two or more substances
  18. If the pH of stomach acid and of oven cleaner were measured...
    the pH of the stomach acid would be below7, but the pH of oven cleaner would be above 7
  19. What is not a function of protiens?
    store and transmit genetic information
  20. The basic unit of matter is the-
  21. when atoms share six electrons, they are joined by a ____ bond
  22. weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden pH changes are called ____
  23. The substances present when a chemical reaction begins are the ___
  24. Because they have the same number of protons and electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same ____ properties
  25. a chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons is a _____bond
  26. A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and ____ atoms.
  27. The pH scale is a measurement system that indicates the concentration of _____ in a solution
    Hydrogen Ions
  28. What structure serves as the cell's boundry from its enviornment
    cell membrane
  29. What is a function of the cell membrane?
    regulates which materials enter and leave the cell
  30. The cell membrane contains channels and pumps that help move materials from one side to the other. What are these channels made of?
  31. Diffusion moves from :
    • - low to high
    • -high to low
    • -equilibrium to high
  32. What means of particle transport requires input from the cell?
    Active transport
  33. The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called
  34. The cells of multicelular organsims are
    specialized to perform different tasks
  35. A group of similar cells that can perform a function is called a-
  36. A plant uses the radiant energy of the sun in the process of
  37. When using radiant energy form the sun the plant takes in _____ _____ form the air
    carbon dioxide
  38. when using radiant energy form the sun the plant takes in ____ form its roots
  39. The orgenelle thath the plant uses for this process of building molecules that store energy is the ___________
  40. A chemical molecule in this organelle can absorb radiant energy from the sun. This chemical is
  41. The reason a plant appears green is because this is the color of the visible spectrum that is ______ and not absorbed
  42. The part of the plant that is made up of these light absorbing molecules is called a
  43. the radiant energy from the sun excites the ________ in chlorophyll
  44. the electrons that leave the chlorophyll are replaced from water. The water molecule is split. For each water molecule two ________ ___, two electrons and an atom of oxygen are produced
    hydrogen ions
  45. The electrons are transported by _______ molecules that are embedded in the thylakoid membrane. The flow of these electrons results in active transportof hydrogen ions into the thylakoid space
  46. The hydrogen ions build up in the thylakoid space and then pass through a special protien enzyme called
    ATP Synthase
  47. The spinning of this molecule results in the formation of a short term energy molecule ___ from ADP
  48. This short term energy molecule is used to power the second stage of photosynthesis which is the ______ cycle
  49. In the light independent stage a long term energy molecule _______ id produced
  50. a product of photosynthesis is
  51. The long term energy molecule produced in photosynthesis is then broken down in the process of __________ and energy is released to be used for cellular activity in both plants and animals
  52. The breakdown of glucose ossurs in the ___ cycle
  53. Respiration takes place in the
  54. as a cell becomes larger, is
    volume increases faster than its surface area
  55. as a cell grows, it
    • -places more demands on its DNA
    • -uses up food and oxygen more quickly
    • -has more trouble moving enough materials across its cell membrane
  56. compared to small cells, large cells have more trouble
    moving neede materials in and waste products out
  57. The process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells is called
    cell division
  58. What is the G2 phase?
    preparation for mitosis
  59. When during the cell cycle is Dna replicated?
    S phase
  60. The cell cycle is the
    series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
  61. During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the dividing cell?
  62. What is the order of the phases of mitosis?
    prophase, metaphase anaphase telophase
  63. What is the role of the spindle in mitosis
    It helps seperate the chromosomes
  64. One difference between cell division in plant cells and animal cells is that plant cells have
    a cell plate
  65. What is a factor that can stop normal cells from growing?
    contact with other cells
  66. Cells grown in a petri dish tend to divide until they form a thin layer covering the bottom of the dish. If the cells are removed from the middle of the dish, the cells bordering the open space will begin dividing until they have filled the open space. What does the expiriment show?
    • -when cells come into contact with other cells, they stop growing
    • -The controls on growth and division can be turned on and off
    • -cell division can be regulated by factor outside the cell
  67. Cancer is a disorder in which some cell have lost the ability to control
    growth rate
  68. gregor mendell used pea plants to study
    the inheritance of traits
  69. Offspring that result from crosses between parents with different traits
    are called hybrids
  70. Gregor Mendell concluded that traits are
    inherited through the passing of factors from parents to offspring
  71. When Gregor Mendel crossed a tall plant with a short plant, the F1 plants inherited
    an allele for tallnes from the tall parent and an allele for shortness from the short parent
  72. The principle of dominance states that
    some alleles are dominant and some are recessive
  73. When Gregor Mendel crossed true-breeding tall plants with true-breeding short plants, all the offspring were tall because
    the allele for tall plants is Dominant
  74. If a pea plant has a recessive allele for green peas, it will produce
    green peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for yellow peas
  75. When you flip a coin what is the probability it will come up tails?
  76. Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be
  77. The positively charged particle in the atom is the __
  78. two or more different atome are combined in definite proportions in any___
  79. a covalent bond is formed by the ___
    sharing of electrons
  80. When you shake sugar and sand together in a test tuem you cause them to form a ___
  81. A compound that produces hydrogen ions in a solution is a(n) ___
  82. In polymerization, complex molecules are formed by the joining together of ____
  83. Protiens are polymers formed from
    amino acids
  84. An enzyme speeds up a reaction by lowering activation energy.In a chemical reaction a reactant binds to an enzyme at a region know as the
    active site
  85. In many cell, the structure that controls the cell's activities is the
  86. Despite differences in size and shape, all cells have cytoplasm and a -
    cell membrane
  87. If a cell of an organism contains a nuclues the organism is a
  88. Distinct threadlike structures containing genetic information are called
  89. THe organelle that converts the chemical energy in food into a form that cells can use is the ___
  90. Cell membranes are constructed mainly of ___
    lipid bilayers
  91. The movement of the water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane is known as
  92. A substance that move across a cell membrane without using the cell's energy tends to move--
    away from the area where it is more concentrated
  93. a tissue is composed of a group of -
    similar cells
  94. Which is an autotroph?
    a/ impalas
    b/ plants
    c/ leopards
    d/ mushrooms
    b/ plants
  95. one of the principal chemical compunds that living things use to store energy is-
  96. what scientist concluded that most of growing plants mass comes from water?
    van Helmont
  97. In additoin to light and chlorophyll, photosynthesis requires ___
    water and CO2
  98. The leaves of a plant appear green because chlorophyll __
    reflects green light
  99. The products of photosynthesis are-
    sugar and oxygen
  100. The first process in the light-dependent process of photosynthesis is -
    light absorbtion
  101. what substance from the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis is a source of energy for the Calvin cycle?
  102. The light dependent reactions of photosynthesis are also known as the
    Calvin Cycle
  103. In cells the energy availible in food is used to make an energy-rich compound called-
  104. The first step in releasing the energy of glucose in a cell is known as
  105. The process that releases energy form food in the presence of oxygen is
    cellular respiration
  106. The net gain of energy form glycolisis is
    2 ATP
  107. Because fermentation takes place in the absence of oxygen, it is said to be
  108. The Krebs Cycle takes place within the
  109. The electron transport chain uses high-energy electrons from the krebs cycle to
    convert ADP to ATP
  110. A total o f 36 molecules of ATP are produced from 1 molecule of glucose as a result of
    cellular respiration
  111. during heavy exercise, the buildup of lactic acid in muscle cells result in
    oxygen debt
  112. The rate at which materials enter and leave the cell membrane depends on the cell's
    surface area
  113. The process of cell division results in
    two daughter cells
  114. Sister Chromatids are attached to eachother at an area called the
  115. If a cell has 12 Chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each of its daughter cells have after mitosis
  116. At the begining of cell division a chromosome consists of two
  117. The phase of mitosis during which chromosomes become visible and the centrioles sepreate from one another is
  118. The timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells is believed to be controlled by a group of closely related protiens known as
  119. in the cell cycle, external regulators direct cells to
    speed up or slow down the cell cycle
  120. unconrolled cell division occurs in
  121. different forms af a gene are called
  122. If a homozygous tall pea plant, and a homozygous short pea plant are crossed-
    the recessive trait seems to disappear
  123. a punnett square is usd to determine the
    probable outcome of a cross
  124. organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be-
  125. The physical characteristics of an organism are its
  126. a situation in which a gene has more than two allels is known as
    multiple alleles
  127. Unlike mitosis, meiosis in male mammals results in the formation of
    four haploid gamete cells
  128. To maintain the chromosomes of an organism, the gametes must
    be produced by meiosis
  129. a gene map shows
    the relative locations of genes on a chromosome
  130. The process by which on strain of bacteria is apparently changed into another strand is called
  131. Bacteriophages are
  132. a nucleotide doesn't contain
  133. in prokaryotes, DNA molecules are located in the
  134. The main enzyme involved in linking individual nucleotides into DNA molecules is
    DNA polymerase
  135. The process by which the genetic code of DNA is copied into a strand of RNA is
  136. In mRNA, each codon specifies a particular
    amino acid
  137. an expressed gene is one that is
    transcribed into RNA