sociology

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sociology
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2011-01-18 16:37:39
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sociology
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midterm review.
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  1. Sociological perspective
    understanding of human behavior by placing it within a broader social context
  2. Society
    example: american schools
    people who share a culture and the territory
  3. Social location
    example: Cardinal McCarrick High School
    group memberships that people have because of their territory and location
  4. 5 steps society was studied
  5. #1 Intuition
    • any flash of insight
    • naive guesswork
    • the source cannot be identified
  6. #2 Authority
    • true and correct
    • is an expert in their field
    • no an expert in every field
  7. #3 Tradition
    • finds truth in what has been true over the years
    • society's "attic" (filled with useless things)
  8. #4 Common Sense
    • convenient catch all
    • prejudice
  9. #5 Science
    • newest way to seek answers
    • based on evidence/most reliable
  10. Sociology
    • social science
    • studies human relationships
  11. Psychology
    mind -> individual
  12. Anthropology
    culture
  13. 5 Steps in Sociological Research
  14. #1 Formulate the Problem
    • find & define the problem
    • form a hypothesis
  15. #2 Plan Your Research Design
    outline what's best to be studied
  16. #3 Collect Data
    gather information
  17. #4 Analyze Data
    study the collected date
  18. #5 Draw Conclusion
    was the original question answered?
  19. If the original question was answered then this is a...
    SOCIAL FACT! :o
  20. Social Fact
    • any social activity that can be measured or observed
    • must be value free
    • objective
  21. Verstchen
    • having insight to someone's situation
    • subjective
  22. Definitions of Sociology
  23. 1. Sociology is the study of men's interdependence
    • a. physiological needs - food, water, shelter, activity, elimination
    • b. security - protection from danger
    • c. love & belongingness - wanting acceptance and respect from others (opposite sex)
    • d. self-esteem - overall respect
    • e. self-actualization - individual is up to his ability
  24. 2. Sociology
    study of society
  25. 2b. Society
    largest group of people who share a unique way of life and occupy a definite territory
  26. 2c. Evolution
    slow change in society
  27. 2d. Revolution
    rapid change in society
  28. 3. Sociology is...
    the study of human groups
  29. 3b. Group
    collection of persons bound together
  30. 3c. Status
    position in society
  31. 3d. Role
    how one acts/behavior
  32. August Conte
    • father of sociology
    • sociology should be based on observation & classification
  33. Herbert Spencer
    • believed in the survival of the fittest
    • 2nd father of sociology
  34. Karl Marx
    studied the struggle between the capitalists and the workers
  35. Emile Durkheim
    social forces affect people's behavior
  36. Max Weber
    believed that Religion was the key factor of capitalism
  37. Harriet Martineau
    analyzed social life between Great Britain and the US
  38. Jane Addams
    founded Hull House in Chicago
  39. W.E.B. DuBois
    found difficulty with racism in the US
  40. Talcott Parsons
    developed models of harmonious societies
  41. C. Wright Mills
    encouraged sociologist to work towards social reform
  42. Three Theoretical Perspectives
  43. Symbolic Interactionism
    example: husband and wife, brother and sister, teacher and student
    (micro level) defines face to face relationships or relationships to others
  44. Functional Analysis
    example: school = teacher, student, activities, rules, academics, everything = all together = structure of school
    • (macro level) looks at society as a whole
    • concerned with all inter related parts
  45. Conflict Theory
    • (macro level) recognizes that society consists of groups
    • groups are going to compete for what's needed
  46. Globalization
    example: technology brought world together
    brings society together
  47. Pure or Basic Sociology
    analyze an aspect of society
  48. Archeologist
    scientists who studies ancient life and culture by digging in ruins to discover pots, bones, tools, and weapons
  49. Ethnologist
    studies groups of people to learn about their culture (norms, folkways, beliefs, etc)
  50. Culture
    language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed down from one generation to the next as a member of society
  51. Culture traits
    smallest element in the culture
  52. Material culture trait
    example: pot made out of gold, gold box, art, clothes, etc.
    material objects
  53. Non material culture trait
    example: value or a norm
    beliefs or interactions
  54. Note:
    "our" speech, gestures, customs are normal to the USA = culture within the US
  55. Culture shock
    disorientation takes place because of different culture
  56. Ethnocentrism
    use of one's old culture as a means of judging other individuals or societies
  57. Negative Ethnocentrism
    can lead to discrimination against other people whose lives are different from ours
  58. Positive Ethnocentrism
    creates in group loyalties
  59. Cultural Relativism
    try to understand a culture on its own terms without passing judgement
  60. Instinctive Communication
    natural reflex reaction
  61. Arbitrary Communication
    involved words, sounds, gestures = learned
  62. Saphir - Whorf Hypothesis
    • language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
    • language is nothing more than common sense expressed in words and gestures
  63. What are three ways we communicate ?
    • facial expressions
    • body language
    • tone of voice
  64. Connotation
    socially learned and is part of the shared meaning of the language
  65. Attitude
    a response or a readiness to respond in a certain manner towards persons, situations, or ideas
  66. Positive Attitude
    good feelings
  67. Negative Attitude
    bad feelings
  68. Ambivalent Attitude
    mixed feelings
  69. Self Assured Attitude
    how you see yourself
  70. Value
    standards by which people define what's good or bad and feel what's the best and most important
  71. Norms
    • rules of social behavior
    • every group has expectations that concerns itself with the right way to reflect its value
  72. Positive Sanction
    • recognition
    • reward
  73. Negative Sanction
    • consequence
    • fine ($$)
    • dentention
  74. Moral Holiday
    • something someone can get away with
    • known as "negative influence"
    • an example would be Mardi Gras
  75. Mores
    normas that are strictly enforced and are presented to the core values of society (right and wrong)
  76. Folkways
    • norms that are strictly enforced but dont really affect society and have no moral influence
    • an example would be thank you notes after someone receives a birthday present
  77. Taboo
    any norm violated and brings severe sanctions
  78. Subculture
    example: religious beliefs, nationalities
    • a cultural group that shares certain traits with a large group society, but has some different traits of its own
    • mainstream ideas with tradition and custom
    • within a culture
  79. Counterculture
    • will clash with the mainstream of society
    • negative impact
  80. Pluralistic Society
    different cultures in a certain territory (US)
  81. Value Cluster
    some values that are grouped together to form a large whole
  82. Value Contradiction
    example: a person that values freedom and democracy BUT they practice racism, prejudice, etc.
    values that contradict each other
  83. What are the four emerging values?
    • leisure
    • physical fitness
    • self fulfillness
    • youthfulness
    • (maybe concern for the environment)
  84. Idealistic Values
    "wishlist"
  85. Real Values
    • work
    • school
  86. New technology
    • internet
    • computers
    • satellites
  87. William Ogburn
    created the word "cultural lag"
  88. Cultural Lag
    described human behavior that lags behind technological innovations
  89. Cultural Diffusion
    spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another
  90. Cultural leveling
    unites the world=the world becomes similar
  91. HUMAN NATURE
    how we interact with people
  92. FERAL CHILDREN
    example: Tarzan was raised by animals
    • assumed to be raised by animals
    • totally isolated form humans
  93. ISOLATED CHILDREN
    example: Isabelle who was isolated with mother in the attic for so long
    • no language
    • no culture
  94. INSTITUTIONALIZED CHILDREN
    • has basic human traits = based on social interaction
    • between ages of birth to 13 we learn everything
  95. SELF
    • individual's perception of himself
    • being able to see ourselves from "the outside"
  96. CHARLES H. COOLEY'S LOOKING GLASS THEORY
    process of discovering the nature of the self from the reactions of others
  97. LOOKING GLASS THEORY STEPS
    • 1. your perception of how you look to others
    • 2. your perception of their judgement of how you look
    • 3. your feelings about the judgements
  98. GEORGE HERBERT MEAD'S "GENERALIZED OTHER" THEORY
    • putting oneself in someone else's shoes
    • the individual looks at himself as if he was another individual
    • he judges his actions and appearances according to the judgements of his generalized other
  99. MEAD =
    we are influenced by others -> significant by others -> major influence on your life
  100. JEAN PIAGET
    • the human being has the ability to reason
    • children go through a natural process as they learn to reason
  101. FOUR STEPS
    • 1. sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 yrs.): limited to direct contact with the environment
    • 2. preoperational stage (2 to 7): learns the ability to use symbols
    • 3. concrete operational stage (7 to 12): reasoning abilities are more concrete
    • 4. formal operational stage (after 12 yrs): abstract thinking takes places
  102. SIGMENT FREUD'S THEORY
  103. ID
    • in born basic drives
    • immediate gratification
    • every child is born with an id
  104. EGO
    term for a balancing force between the id and the demands of society; ROADBLOCK
  105. SUPEREGO
    • conscious -> moral piece of our personality
    • deals with norms and values
    • produces guilt and shame
  106. LAWRENCE KOHLBERG'S STAGES
    • 1. preconventional morality (7 to 10):
    • child learns to stay out of trouble
    • rules are important
    • 2. conventional morality (10 to 12):
    • follow rules of society (value & norms)
    • 3. postconventional morality (adult):
    • most people dont reach this level
    • individual reflects on "abstract principals" of right and wrong
    • behavior is judged
  107. SIX BASIC EMOTIONS
    • anger
    • disgusted
    • fear
    • happiness
    • sadness
    • suprise
  108. GENDER SOCIALIZATION
    • expects different attitudes and behaviors from us because of being male or female
    • society dictates our actions based on male or female
  109. AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION
    • family
    • neighborhood
    • day care
    • school
    • peers
    • sports
    • workplace
    • religion
  110. RESOCIALIZATION
    a new set of values, norms, lifestyle - attitude and behavior
  111. TOTAL INSTITUTION
    a place where people are cut off from the rest of society
  112. SOCIALIZATION
    • 1. childhood (birth to 12):
    • social location - based on social class and gender
    • 2. adolescence (13 to 17):
    • childhood towards adulthood
    • 3. transitional adolescence (18 to 29):
    • individual doesn't take on full adult responsibility
    • 4. middle years (30 to 65):
    • early middle years (30 to 49)
    • more secure
    • later middle years (50 to 65)
    • 5. older years (65+)
    • early older years (65 to 74)
    • later older years (75 ..?)
  113. STATUS SYMBOLS
    items used to identify status
  114. ROLE CONFLICT
    a situation in which the behavior that's expected or one role comes into conflict with the behavior expected of another role
  115. ROLE STRAIN
    conflicts that someone "feels" within a role
  116. TWO MAJOR GROUPS
  117. PRIMARY GROUP
    • maintain face to face relationships
    • share feelings
  118. SECONDARY GROUP
    distant relationships
  119. MICROSOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • study on a smaller scale
    • more narrow focus on society
    • deal with face to face relationships
  120. SYMBOLIC INTERACTION
    • believe that most important part of society is interaction
    • how people look at things
    • how it affects behavior and the way of life
  121. SIX POINTS OF INTERACTION
  122. 1. Stereotypes in everyday life - 1st impressions set the tone
    example: clothing, hairstyle, make up, bling, race, age, gender, and ethnicity
  123. 2. Personal Space
    • we all have our "personal bubble"
    • only certain people enter the "bubble" (family/closest friends)

    • 4 different distance zones:
    • a. intimate distance - hugging, kissing, touching etc (18" from our bodies)
    • b. personal distance - friends and acquaintances (18" to 4")
    • c. social distance - impersonal and formal relationships (4' to 12')
    • d. public space - extremely formal (beyond 12')
  124. 3. Touching
    • differ from culture to culture
    • differ from person to person
  125. 4. Eye Contact
    a million words can be shared without opening your mouth
  126. 5. Smile
    • culture to culture
    • "hello"
  127. 6. Applied Body Language
    using emotions using gestures and body movements

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