AP Psychology Chapter 2 Review

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AP Psychology Chapter 2 Review
2011-01-18 18:14:39
ap psychology review

Biological bases of behavior
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  1. biological psychology
    studies links between biology and psychology
  2. dendrites
    receive messages; send towards cell body
  3. neuron
    nerve cell
  4. axon
    extension of neuron
  5. axon terminal
    end of axon; joins with dendrites
  6. myelin sheath
    fatty tissue around axon, sends messages faster
  7. action potential
    electrical charge which travels down axon
  8. threshold
    stimulation needed to trigger neural impulse
  9. synapse
    gap between axon and dendrites
  10. neurotransmitters
    chemical messengers; travel from one neuron to the next
  11. acetylcholine
    learning and memory; muscle contraction
  12. endorphins
    pain control and pleasure
  13. nervous system
    electrochemical communication network
  14. central nervous system (CNS)
    brain and spinal cord
  15. peripheral nervous system
    connects all other nerves to CNS
  16. somatic nervous system
    division of peripheral; controls skeletal muscles
  17. autonomic nervous system
    division of peripheral; controls glands and organ muscles
  18. sympathetic nervous system
    division of autonomic; mobilizes body energy
  19. parasympathetic nervous system
    division of autonomic; demobilizes body energy
  20. nerves
    bundles of axons
  21. sensory neurons
    information from sense receptors to CNS
  22. interneurons
    CNS neurons which internally communicate
  23. motor neurons
    info from CNS to muscles and glands
  24. reflex
    automatic response to sensory stimulus
  25. neural networks
    interconnected neural cells
  26. endocrine system
    secrete hormones "slow" chemical communication
  27. hormones
    chemical messengers produced in one tissue, affect another
  28. adrenal glands
    secrete adrenaline and nonadrenaline
  29. pituitary gland
    regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
  30. lesion
    destruction of brain tissue
  31. EEG
    measures electrical activity on brain surface
  32. PET
    shows where glucose goes when doing a specific task
  33. MRI
    uses magnetic fields to show levels of soft tissue
  34. fMRI
    reveals blood flow and brain function
  35. brainstem
    base of skull, autonomic survival functions
  36. medulla
    base of brainstem; heartbeat and breathing
  37. reticular formation
    nerve network; important role in controlling arousal
  38. thalamus
    sensory switchboard; directs messages
  39. cerebellum
    processes sensory input and coordinating movement output
  40. limbic system
    system of neural structures; emotions and drives
  41. amygdala
    emotions; fear and agression
  42. hypothalamus
    maintenance activities and governs endocrine system
  43. cerebral cortex
    body's ultimate control and information processing center
  44. glial cells
    support, nourish, and protect neurons
  45. frontal lobes
    making plans and judgements; personality
  46. parietal lobes
    sensory input for touch and body position
  47. occipital lobes
    visual information
  48. temporal lobes
    auditory information
  49. motor cortex
    rear of frontal lobes, voluntary movement
  50. sensory cortex
    front of parietal; processes body touch
  51. association aras
    not involved in specific functions
  52. aphasia
    language disability
  53. broca's area
    frontal lobe, language expression
  54. Wernicke's area
    parietal lobe, language comprehension
  55. plasticity
    brain's ability to adapt
  56. corpus callosum
    band of neural fibers connecting hemispheres
  57. split brain
    person whose corpus callosum has been cut