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What is the given definition of work? (3 prts)
- Ability to do work.
- Can not be created or destroyed.
- Total amount of energy in the world is constant.
Name the seven forms of energy.
- Mechanical (Kinetic, Potential)
- Nuclear (Fission, Fusion)
- Light (Electromagnetic)
What are the components of an energy conversion system?
- 1. Source of energy
- 2. Conversion devices
- 3. Transportation
- 4. Storage
- 5. End use
What three things are necessary for the formation of fossil fuels?
- 1. High Pressure
- 2. High Temperature.
- 3. Long Time (>100 Million Years)
Give the stages of formation of coal.
Dead Plants ---> Pear ---> Lignite ---> Bituminous Coal ---> Anthracite
What are the following definitions:
1) Capable of synthesizing organic molecules from inorganic precursors and storing biochemical energy ("Self Feeding").
2) Obtain energy from feeding on organisms ("Consumer").
3) Eat plants, usually autotrophs.
4) Eat meat, usually herbivores.
- 1) Autotroph
- 2) Heterotroph
- 3) Herbivore
- 4) Carnivore
What is the photosynthesis reaction?
6CO2 + 6H2O + sun(400 - 700 nm) ---> C6H12O6 + 6CO2
What interesting emissions phenomena does biomass have?
It is carbon neutral.
What are the food energy conversion equations (4)?
- 1. Food Intake = Assimilation + Excretion
- 2. Assimilation = Gross Production = Net production (Formation of new tissue) + Respiration (Maintenance)
- 3. Assimilation Efficiency = Assimilation/Ingestion(Food Intake)
- 4. Net Production Efficiency = NPP/GPP.
What is the cellular respiration conversion equation?
- C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
- where energy is trapped by ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
What is the definition of food calorie (Cal)
- 1 Cal = 1000 cal = 4.2 KJ
- Heat required to heat 1 kg (1L) of water by 1 degree.
What is Global Warming Potential (GWP)?
Measure of how much a gas contributes to global warming with respect to CO2
What are three ways nature may fix global warming?
- 1) Higher temp may increase vegetation in polar regions which would absorb more CO2.
- 2) Kind of vegetation may change leading to more CO2 absorption.
- 3) Rising ocean may absorb more CO2, but this is a slow process.
When did Canada sign Kyoto Protocol?
- Signed in 1998, and ratified in 2002 for 6%(against 1990).
- Note that amount required was only 5%.
What are the three things that countries can do to "lower emissions"?
- 1) Emission trading (Carbon market)
- 2) Clean development mechanism
- 3) Joint implementation
What are the components of the Kaya Equation of emission?
- Emission intensity, population, GDP per capita, energy per GDP
- CO2 = (CO2/E)(E/GDP)(GDP/POP)(POP)
What does BASIC stand for?
The fastest developing countries in the world: Brazil, South Africa, India, China
What are the important conferences of parties (COP)?
- COP 3 - Kyoto, Japan (1997)
- COP 15 - Copenhagen, Denmark (2009)
- COP 16 - Cancun, Mexico (2010)
What does UFNCCC stand for?
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change