AP Psych Review Chapter 10

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melrebek1
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60613
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AP Psych Review Chapter 10
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2011-01-18 20:37:25
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AP Psych Thinking Language
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AP Psych review thinking and language
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  1. cognition
    the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  2. concept
    a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
  3. prototype
    a mental image or best example of a category
  4. algorithm
    a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
  5. heuristic
    a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficienty
  6. insight
    a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
  7. confirmation bias
    a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
  8. fixation
    the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
  9. mental set
    a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
  10. representative heuristic
    judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes; may lead on to ignore other relevant information
  11. availability heuristic
    estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, if instances come readily to mind we presume events are common
  12. overconfidence
    the tendency to be more confident that correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements
  13. framing
    the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
  14. belief bias
    the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
  15. belief perseverance
    clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
  16. language
    our spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
  17. phoneme
    in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning;may be a word or a part of a word
  18. morpheme
    in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word
  19. grammar
    in a language, a system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others
  20. semantics
    the set of rules by which derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning
  21. syntax
    the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
  22. babbling stage
    beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
  23. one-word stage
    the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
  24. two-word stage
    beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks most two-word statements
  25. telegraphic speech
    early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words
  26. linguistic determination
    Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
  27. Skinner vs Chomsky
    • Skinner = nature (association, imitation, and reinforcement)
    • Chomsky - universal grammar = nature (W/ good nurturing)

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