290 Test 1

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kamihack
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60734
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290 Test 1
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2011-01-19 13:15:39
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290 Test 1
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  1. What is a theory
    • •Organizes
    • information

    • •Helps
    • explain past events

    • •Predicts
    • new events
  2. Research is what 8 things?
    • 1. Based on the work of others
    • 2. Can be replicated
    • 3. Is generalizable to other settings
    • 4. Is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory
    • 5. Is doable
    • 6. Generates new questions or is cyclical in nature
    • 7. Is incremental
    • 8. Is an apolitical activity that should be undertaken for the betterment of society
  3. 8 Steps in the research process
    • 1. Asking the question
    • 2. identifying important factors
    • 3. formulating a hypothesis
    • 4. collecting relevant information
    • 5. testing the hypothesis
    • 6. working with the hypothesis
    • 7. reconsidering the theory
    • 8. asking new question
  4. NONEXPERIMENTAL
    RESEARCH
    • •Describe
    • relationships between variables

    • •Cannot
    • test cause-and-effect relationships
  5. (Non experimental)
    DESCRIPTIVE
    RESEARCH
    • •Describes
    • characteristics of existing phenomena

    • •Provides
    • a broad picture

    • •Serves
    • as basis for other types of research
  6. (Non Experimental)
    HISTORICAL
    RESEARCH
    • •Describes
    • past events in the context of other past or current events

    • •Primary
    • and secondary sources of data
  7. (Non Experimental)
    CORRELATIONAL
    RESEARCH
    • •Asks
    • what several events have in common

    • •Asks
    • whether knowing one event can allow prediction of another event

    • •Does
    • not imply causation

  8. (Non Experimental)
    QUALITATIVE
    RESEARCH
    • •Examines
    • behavior in natural social, cultural, and political contexts

    • •Usually
    • results in non-quantitative data
  9. Experimental Research
    • •Tries
    • to discover causal relationships

    • •Two
    • types

    • –True
    • experimental research

    • –Quasi-experimental
    • research
  10. TRUE
    EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
    • •Participants
    • assigned to groups

    • •Treatment
    • variable is controlled by researcher

    • •Control
    • of potential causes of behavior
  11. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL
    RESEARCH
    • •Participants
    • are preassigned to groups

    • •Useful
    • when researcher cannot manipulate variables
  12. APPLIED
    VS. BASIC RESEARCH
    • •Basic
    • research has no immediate application

    • •Applied
    • research has immediate applications
  13. VARIABLES
    • •A
    • class of outcomes that can take on more than one value

    • •The
    • more precisely a variable is measured, the more useful the measurement is
  14. DEPENDENT
    VARIABLES (DVs)
    • •The
    • Outcomes of a Research Study

    • •Depends
    • on the experimental treatment
  15. INDEPENDENT
    VARIABLES (IVs)
    • •Treatments
    • or conditions under control of the researcher

    • •Levels—at
    • least two different values of the IV must be present
  16. THE
    RELATIONSHIP BETEWEEN INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES:

    WHAT MAKES GOOD VARIABLES?
    • •Independent
    • Variable is not confounded

    • –Levels
    • do not vary systematically with other variables

    • •Dependent
    • Variable is sensitive to changes in the IV
  17. CONTROL VARIABLE
    • •Has
    • a potential influence on the DV
  18. EXTRANEOUS VARIABLE
    •Has an unpredictable impact on the DV
  19. MODERATOR VARIABLE
    • •Variables
    • related to IVs and/or DVs, and hiding the true relationship between IVs and DVs
  20. NULL
    HYPOTHESIS
    • •States that there is no relationship
    • between the independent and dependent variables under study

    • •Ho:
    • µ1 = µ2



    • –Ho:
    • Null hypothesis

    • –µ1:
    • Theoretical average of population 1

    • –µ2:
    • Theoretical average of population 2
  21. THE
    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
    • •A
    • statement of inequality

    • •A
    • relationship exists between the independent and dependent variables
  22. DIRECTIONAL
    VS. NONDIRECTIONAL RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
    • •Nondirectional
    • Research Hypothesis

    • –Groups
    • are different, but direction is not specified

    • •Directional
    • Research Hypothesis

    • –Groups
    • are different, and direction is specified
  23. WHAT
    MAKES A GOOD HYPOTHESIS?
    • •Stated
    • in declarative form

    • •Posits
    • a relationship between variables

    • •Reflects
    • theory or literature

    • •Brief
    • and to the point

    •Testable
  24. SIGNIFICANCE
    • •Observed differences (PROBABLY) result
    • from the treatment and not from chance

    •Why?

    –Influences other than the treatment

    • •Significance level = risk associated with
    • not being 100% certain that Null hypothesis is incorrect

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