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State the six areas of naval doctrine. Acronym WILCOP
- NAVAL WARFARE- Describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of Naval forces.
- NAVAL INTELLIGENCE- Points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
- NAVAL OPERATIONS- Develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.
- NAVAL LOGISTICS- Addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are essential to the support of naval forces.
- NAVAL PLANNING- Examines forces planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
- NAVAL COMMAND AND CONTROL- Provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces and weapons systems.
Discuss the conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy.
The United States Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which the Continental Navy established on 13 October 1775 by authorizing the procurement, fitting out, manning, and dispatch of two armed vessels to cruise in search of munitions ships supplying the British Army in America. The legislation also established a Naval Committee to supervise the work. All together, the Continental Navy numbered some fifty ships over the course of the war, with approximately twenty warships active at its maximum strength. After the American War of Independence, Congress sold the surviving ships of the Continental Navy released the seamen and officers. The Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, empowered Congress “to provide and maintain a navy.” Acting on this authority, Congress ordered the construction and manning of six frigates in 1794, and the War Department administered naval affairs from that year until Congress established the Department of the Navy on 30 April 1798.
Discuss the origin of the Marine Corps.
The Marine Corps was created on 10 November 1775, in Philadelphia, at Tun Tavern, by a resolution of the Continental Congress, which “raised two battalions Marines.” In 1834, the Marines came under the Department of the Navy. The National Security Act of 1947, amended in 1952, states the present structure, Missions, and functions of the Marine Corps.
Explain the Marine Corps motto, Semper Fidelis.
The official motto of the Marine Corps, “Semper Fidelis,” is Latin for “Always Faithful.” The motto, sometimes abbreviated, “Semper Fi,” was adopted about 1883.
Describe and state the significance of the Marine Corps emblem.
- The emblem consists of an eagle clenching the Marine Corps motto in its beak, the Globe (Western Hemisphere), and the anchor. The emblem was adopted from the British (Royal) Marines and was modified by Brigadier General Jacob Zeilin in 1868 to depict the Marines as both American and maritime.
- a. The globe and anchor signify the worldwide service and sea traditions.
- b. The spread eagle represents the nation itself.
- c. The motto, “Semper Fidelis” is Latin for “Always Faithful.”
Explain the following terms/phrases used throughout the Marine Corps: Leatherneck
Communicate that the nickname dates back to the leather stock, or neckpiece worn as part of the Marine uniform during the years 1775 to 1875. Back then, the leather bands around their throats ensured that Marines kept their heads erect. Descended from the stock, the standing Collar, is hallmark of the Marine blues, whites, and evening dress. Like it’s Leather ancestor, the standing collar regulates stance and posture, Proclaiming the wearer as a modern “leatherneck.”
Discuss the Belleau Wood fighting in 1918 in which the Germans received a thorough indoctrination in the Marine’s fighting ability. Fighting through “impenetrable” woods and capturing “untakeable” terrain, their persistent attacks delivered with unbelievable courage soon had the Germans calling the Marines “Teufelhunden,” fierce fighting dogs of legendary origin, belovedly translated “devil dogs.”
Esprit de corps
Relate that the “spirit” of a unit is commonly reflected by all of its history, traditions, and honor. It is the epitone of Pride in the unit!
Uncommon valor was a common virtue
Refer to the victories in World War II, especially at Iwo Jima, the largest all-Marine battle in history. Admiral Nimitz applied the Marine fighting on Iwo Jima to the entire Marine Corps’ contribution during that war, stating “Uncommon valor was a common virtue.”
First to fight
Communicate that Marines have been in the fore front of every American war since the founding of the Marine Corps. They entered the Revolution in 1775, just before the Declaration of Independence was signed. They have carried out more than 300 landings on foreign shores. They have served everywhere, from the poles to the tropics. Their record of readiness reflects pride, responsibility, and challenge.
Name the document that established the official mission of the Marine Corps.
The official mission of the Marine Corps is established in the National Security Act of 1947, amended in 1952. Marines are trained, organized and equipped for Offensive amphibious employment and as a “force in readiness.” According to the Act, Marines stand prepared to meet mission requirements.
Discuss the seven elements of the Marine Corps Mission.
- a. Provide Fleet Marine Force with combined arms and supporting air componentsfor service with the United States Fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and for the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the execution of naval campaign.
- b. Provide detachments and organizations for service on armed vessels of the Navy and security detachments for the protection of naval property at naval Stations and bases.
- c. Develop, in coordination with the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the doctrine, tactics, techniques, and equipment employed by landing forces in amphibious operations.
- d. Provide Marine forces for airborne operations, in coordination with the Army, Navy, and Air Force, according to the doctrine established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
- e. Develop, in coordination with the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the doctrine, procedures, and equipment for airborne operations.
- f. Expand peacetime components to meet wartime needs according to the joint mobilization plans.
- g. Perform such other duties as the President may direct.
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