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What is Perception?
The process of interpreting the message of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment.
What are the components of Perception?
- Experience- helps us determine how we will react to a situation
- Motivational, emotional and physiological state- need to have the effort to fully look over the target, and based on your mood it will adjust the way you look upon a situation.
- Target - the thing one is trying to make sense of
- Context helps interpretation
What biases are there in Perception?
- Primacy- the tendency to remember event earlier on more so then even later on (first impressions)
- Recency- the tendency to remember the event that happened to happen most recent (latest event)
- Reliance on central traits- focusing on the characteristic that stands out most
- Implicit personality theories- this is a theory determining what personality traits go together
- Projection- we tend to assume that others are and think and react the same way we do
- Stereotyping- a tendency to generalize people in a social category ignoring personal deviations between them
Where does Perception Matter?
- Recruitment and Selection
- Workforce Diversity
- Selection Interview
- Performance Appraisals
How does Perception affect Recruitment and Selection?
Are viewed organization "signals" (what the organization is really like)
How does Perception affect Workforce Diversity?
- Negative stereotypes are detrimental
- Racial and ethnic stereotypes
- Gender stereotypes
- Age stereotypes
- Stereotype Reduction
- Starts with recruitment and selection
- Make sure you are heavily recruiting from all different race, gender and age groups
- Promote teambuilding
- Make it so everyone strong individually and better as a whole
- Ensure that those making career decisions about employees have accurate information about them
- Diversity training
- Can be very affective
How does Perception affect Selection Interview?
- Stereotype of the ideal employee
- Stereotypes are often inaccurate and may not be correct for certain jobs
- Primacy effect
- Relying on first impression
- Can often be evaluated off resume before interview even starts
- Negative information is weighted more
- Information one give that is not very favorable will be highly put against them
- Contrast effects
- The person who is interviewed before you has and effect on your interview (a bad previous interview is favorable)
How does Perception affect Performance Appraisals?
- what one does early in the evaluation effect comes out more
- thing a couple weeks before the appraisal phase are much more important to the evaluation
- Appraising someone based on being part of a certain group
- Various rater errors: leniency, harshness and central tendency(One-to-all)
- Rater Errors in Performance
- Appraisal chart (reference text)
- Similar-to-me error
- Someone who shares a same interest or similarity with you, you tend to evaluate better
- Halo/ Horns error
- One-to-one error based on just one part of someone traits based for all
What is Attribution?
The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain peoples behaviours.
What are the two classes of attribution?
- The persons stable
- characteristics blamed the situation
- The situation was stable but
- the person was blamed
What are the cues used to make attribution?
- Consistency Cues
- Does the person engage in the behaviours regularly and consistently over time?
- Consensus Cues
- Do most people engage in the
- behaviour or is it unique to the person?
- Distinctiveness Cues
- Does the person engage in
- the behaviour in many situations or is it distinct to one situation?
What are the biases of Attribution?
- Fundamental attribution error
- When we look at people attribution we blame them based on there attributions based off a situation
- Actor-observer effect
- A tendency for observers to judge other, other than you would just yourself
- Self-serving bias
- Tendency to take credit for our success and deny out responsibilities for our failures