Chapter 1

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micaela
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60775
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Chapter 1
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2011-01-19 17:13:22
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anatomy
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Human Anatomy
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  1. the branch of science that includes the study of structure and the relationship of those stuctures to each other.
    Anatomy
  2. study of form (morphology) and markings on the surface of the body
    Surface anatomy
  3. study of structures that can be examined without the use of a microscope
    Gross (macroscopic) anatomy
  4. study of specific systems of the body, such as the nervous system
    systemic anatomy
  5. study of specific region of the body such as the head or chest
    regional anatomy
  6. study of the structures of the body with the use of x-rays
    radiographic anatomy
  7. sudy of development from the fertilized egg to mature adult
    developmental anatomy
  8. study of development of the fertilized egg through the first eight weeks of uterine growth
    embryology anatomy
  9. microscopic study of the structure of tissues
    histology
  10. microscopic and chemical study of the structure of cells
    cystology
  11. study of the strucural changes associated with disease. Includes both gross (macroscopic) and microscopic study
    Pathological anatomy
  12. the branch of science that includes the study of the functions of an organism or its parts
    physiology
  13. study of the functions of cells
    cell physiology
  14. study of the functional changes associated with disease and aging
    pathophysiology
  15. study of changes in cell and organ functions during muscular activity
    exercise anatomy
  16. study of the functions of nerve cells
    neurophysiology
  17. study of the function of endocrine glands and the hormones they release
    endocrinology
  18. study of the functions of the heart and blood vessels.
    cardiovascular physiology
  19. study of our immune system and the function of our body defense mechanisms
    Immunology
  20. study of the function of the lungs and air passageways
    Respiratory physiology
  21. study of kidney functions
    renal physiology
  22. the first level of structural organization.
    chemical levels
  23. carbon
    hydrogen
    oxygen
    nitrogen
    four essential atom in the body
  24. proteins
    carbohydrates
    fats
    vitamins
    enzymes
    atoms combine to from molecules
  25. second level of structural organization
    cellular level
  26. are the basic structural and functional units of an organism
    cells
  27. third highest level of structural organization
    tissue level
  28. group of cells and the materials surrounding them, that usually arise from common cellular origins (primary germ layer) and work together to perform a particular function
    tissues
  29. epithelial
    muscle
    connective
    nervous
    basic type of tissues
  30. fourth highest level of structural organization
    organ level
  31. structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues, have specific functions, and usually have recognizable shapes. heart, lungs, liver, brain stomach
    organs
  32. composed of epithelial and connective tissue to protect the stomach and reduce friction when the stomach moces and rubs against other organs within the abdominal cavity
    serosa or outer covering of the stomach
  33. contracts to churn and mix food, and push it along toward the small intestine
    muscular tissue
  34. composed of epithelial tissue with specialized cells that contribute fluid and aid in the digestion of food.
    the inner lining of stomach
  35. the fifth highest level of structural organization
    system level
  36. consists of several related organs that have a common function
    system
  37. includes the skin, hair, nails, seat and oil glands.
    helps regulate body temp., removes some of the body wastes produced vit. D and contains sensory organ for pain, pressure, temperature, and light touch
    integumentary system
  38. includes the bones of the body and cartillage.supports and protects the body, aids in body movement, give rise to blood cells, and stores minerals
    skeletal system
  39. cardiac and smooth muscle tissue. aids the body movement, stabilizes body positions, and generates heat
    muscular system
  40. *brain, spinal cord, nerves, senses
    *interprets, regulates, and directs body activities through nerve impuses
    nervous system
  41. *endocrine glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood.
    *regulates body activities by targeting distant functionsor organs elsewhere in the body
    endocrine system
  42. * heart, blood vessels, and blood
    *distributes oxygen and nutrients to the cells, carries waste and carbon dioxide away from cells, helps maintain the acid base balance, protects againts disease, aids the blood clotting and regulates our body temp.
    cardiovascular system
  43. *lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymphatic tissue (such as lmyph nodes, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodules)
    * returns large protiens & plasma to the cardiovascular systems and transports fats from gastrointestinal tract to the cardiovascular system. the tymus serves as a sute for maturation and proliferation of certain blood cells
    Lymphatic system
  44. protects against disease through the production of protiens canlled antiboddies and other immune responses
    immune system
  45. * lungs and air passageways
    * supplies oxygen, eliminates carbon dioxide, and helps regulate the acid base balance of the body,
    Vocal cords within the larynx produce vocalization
    respiratory system
  46. consist of 3 longtube known as gastrointestinal tract, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
    responsible for the physical and chemical breakdown of food, the absorption of nutrients for use by cells, and the elimination of waste
    digestive system
  47. * kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    * responsible for the formation, storage, and the elimination of urine
    uninary system
  48. * egg and sperm
    * testes and ovaries
    reproductive system
  49. the sixth highest level of structural organization.
    to comprise the total organism or onr living individual
    organismic level
  50. the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body
    metabolism
  51. break down of large, complex molecules into smaller, simplier one.
    energy is release
    catabolism
  52. uses energy from catabolism to build the bodys structural and functional componets.
    energy is used or consumed
    anabolism
  53. the ability to detect and respond to changes in the external or internal environment
    responsiveness
  54. motion of the body as a whole; or movement of individual organs, single cells, or even organelles within a cell
    movement
  55. increase in size that results from an increase number or size of cells or both
    growth
  56. the change that a cell undergoes to develop from an unspecialized into a specialized state
    differentiation
  57. the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement.
    formation of a new individual to insure that life continues from one generation to another
    reproduction
  58. condition in which the body's internl environment remains within a certain physiological limits
    homeostasis
  59. fluid with the cells of the body
    intracellular fluids
  60. fluid outside of body cells
    extracellular fluid
  61. extracellular fluid found in blood vessles
    plasma
  62. extracellular fluid dound in lymph
    lymph
  63. extracellular fluid found in the anterior cavity of the eye
    aqueous humor
  64. extracellular fluid found within the ventricles and subrachnoid spaces around the brain and spinal cord
    cerebrospinal fluid
  65. extracellular fluid that fills the microscopic spaces between the cells of tissue
    interstitial fluid aka intercellular fluid aka tissue fluid
  66. defined as any atimulus that tends to create an imbalance in the internal environment of the body.
    stree
  67. temperature extremes. oxygen content of air due to high or low altitude
    external stress
  68. low blood glocuse, high acidity of extracellular fluid
    internal strees
  69. divorce, death, loss of job, demands of school and work
    pgychological stress
  70. the responce reverse ir reduce the original stimulus
    negative feedback system
  71. the response enhances or intensifies the original stimulus
    positive feedback system
  72. subject stands erect (upright position) facing the observer with feet flat on the floor, arms placed at the sides, and palms turn forward
    anatomical positions
  73. subjective changes in the body functions that are not apparent to an observer, such as a headache or nausea
    symptoms
  74. objective changes that clinician can observe and measure. swelling, fever, rash or paralysis
    signs
  75. toward the head or upper part of astructure
    superior (cephalic or cranial)
  76. away from the head or toward the lover part of a structure
    inferior
  77. nearer to or at a front of the body
    anterior
  78. nearer to or at the back of the body
    posterior
  79. the body positioned with the anterior side facing downward
    prone
  80. the body positioned with the anterior side facing donnward
    supine
  81. nearer to the midline of the body or a structure
    medial
  82. farther from the midline of the body or a structure
    lateral
  83. between two structures
    intermediate
  84. on the same side of the body
    ipsilateral
  85. on the opposite side of the body
    contralateral
  86. nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the point of origin
    proximal
  87. farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the point of orihin
    distal
  88. toward or on the surface of the body
    superficial
  89. away from the surface of the body
    deep
  90. vertical plane that divides the body or organ into unequal right and left sides
    sagittal plane aka parasagittal plane
  91. vertical plane that divides the body or organ into equal right and left side
    midsagittal plane aka median plane
  92. vertical plane that divides the body or organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
    frontal plane aka coronal plane
  93. horizontal plane that divides the body or organ into superior (top) and an inferior (bottom) portion
    transverse plane aka cross sectional plane aka horizontal plane
  94. the plane that passes through the body or organ at an angle between the transverse plane and either the sagittal or coronal plane
    oblique plane
  95. confined spaces within the body that contain internal organs. help proctect, separate, and support the organs
    body cavities
  96. located near the back surface, or dorsum of the body
    dorsal body cavity
  97. formed by the carnial bones it containes the brain
    cranial cavity
  98. formed bybthe vertebrae of the spine, it contains the soinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves
    vertebral canal aka spinal canal
  99. located on the front surface or ventral aspect of the body.
    ventral body cavity
  100. contains the following structures and spaces
    thoracic cavity
  101. defined as a double layeres membrane that lines a body cavity that does not open directly to the exterior and covers the organs within the cavity
    serous membrane
  102. located between the pleural cavities, it is located medial to the lungs and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column
    mediastinum
  103. this cavity located within the dediastinun is a fluid-filled space between the serous membrane that covers the heart called the visceral pericardium and the serous memberane called the parietal pericardium
    perocardial cavity
  104. the serous membrane that lines this cavity is known as the parietal peritoneum and the serous membrane that directly covers the organs within this cavity is known as the visceral peritoneum
    abdominopelvic cavity
  105. superior portion of the cavity that contains the stomach, slpeen, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intertine and most of the large intestine
    abdominal cavity
  106. inferior portion of the cavity which contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and the interla organs of the reproduction
    pelvic cavity
  107. thses imags allow for visualization of the stuructures inside the body, and provide clues to both abnormal anatomy and deviations from normal physiology
    medica.l imaging
  108. x-rays passing through the body produce a two dimentional image of the interior body
    conventional radiography
  109. x-rays beams moving in an arc around the body produce an image of a transverse section on a video monitor.
    computed tomography (CT) scanning
  110. complex x-ray image that produces a moving, three dimentional, life size image that can be rotated, tipped, sliced open, or enlarged to further evaluate or assess parts of the body
    dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR)
  111. computer comparisons of radiograph both before and after conrtast dye has been injected into the blood vessel. some images are erase which allows for an unobstructed view of blood vessels
    digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
  112. positively charged radioactive particles are injected into the body
    positron emission tomography (PET)
  113. protons within atoms of the body respond to a pulse of radio waves while they are being magnetized.
    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  114. high frequency sound waves are passed into the body and reflect off various densities of body tissue
    ultrasound

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