the branch of science that includes the study of structure and the relationship of those stuctures to each other.
study of form (morphology) and markings on the surface of the body
study of structures that can be examined without the use of a microscope
Gross (macroscopic) anatomy
study of specific systems of the body, such as the nervous system
study of specific region of the body such as the head or chest
study of the structures of the body with the use of x-rays
sudy of development from the fertilized egg to mature adult
study of development of the fertilized egg through the first eight weeks of uterine growth
microscopic study of the structure of tissues
microscopic and chemical study of the structure of cells
study of the strucural changes associated with disease. Includes both gross (macroscopic) and microscopic study
the branch of science that includes the study of the functions of an organism or its parts
study of the functions of cells
study of the functional changes associated with disease and aging
study of changes in cell and organ functions during muscular activity
study of the functions of nerve cells
study of the function of endocrine glands and the hormones they release
study of the functions of the heart and blood vessels.
study of our immune system and the function of our body defense mechanisms
study of the function of the lungs and air passageways
study of kidney functions
the first level of structural organization.
four essential atom in the body
atoms combine to from molecules
second level of structural organization
are the basic structural and functional units of an organism
third highest level of structural organization
group of cells and the materials surrounding them, that usually arise from common cellular origins (primary germ layer) and work together to perform a particular function
basic type of tissues
fourth highest level of structural organization
structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues, have specific functions, and usually have recognizable shapes. heart, lungs, liver, brain stomach
composed of epithelial and connective tissue to protect the stomach and reduce friction when the stomach moces and rubs against other organs within the abdominal cavity
serosa or outer covering of the stomach
contracts to churn and mix food, and push it along toward the small intestine
composed of epithelial tissue with specialized cells that contribute fluid and aid in the digestion of food.
the inner lining of stomach
the fifth highest level of structural organization
consists of several related organs that have a common function
includes the skin, hair, nails, seat and oil glands.
helps regulate body temp., removes some of the body wastes produced vit. D and contains sensory organ for pain, pressure, temperature, and light touch
includes the bones of the body and cartillage.supports and protects the body, aids in body movement, give rise to blood cells, and stores minerals
cardiac and smooth muscle tissue. aids the body movement, stabilizes body positions, and generates heat
*brain, spinal cord, nerves, senses
*interprets, regulates, and directs body activities through nerve impuses
*endocrine glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood.
*regulates body activities by targeting distant functionsor organs elsewhere in the body
* heart, blood vessels, and blood
*distributes oxygen and nutrients to the cells, carries waste and carbon dioxide away from cells, helps maintain the acid base balance, protects againts disease, aids the blood clotting and regulates our body temp.
*lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymphatic tissue (such as lmyph nodes, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodules)
* returns large protiens & plasma to the cardiovascular systems and transports fats from gastrointestinal tract to the cardiovascular system. the tymus serves as a sute for maturation and proliferation of certain blood cells
protects against disease through the production of protiens canlled antiboddies and other immune responses
* lungs and air passageways
* supplies oxygen, eliminates carbon dioxide, and helps regulate the acid base balance of the body,
Vocal cords within the larynx produce vocalization
consist of 3 longtube known as gastrointestinal tract, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
responsible for the physical and chemical breakdown of food, the absorption of nutrients for use by cells, and the elimination of waste
* kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
* responsible for the formation, storage, and the elimination of urine
* egg and sperm
* testes and ovaries
the sixth highest level of structural organization.
to comprise the total organism or onr living individual
the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body
break down of large, complex molecules into smaller, simplier one.
energy is release
uses energy from catabolism to build the bodys structural and functional componets.
energy is used or consumed
the ability to detect and respond to changes in the external or internal environment
motion of the body as a whole; or movement of individual organs, single cells, or even organelles within a cell
increase in size that results from an increase number or size of cells or both
the change that a cell undergoes to develop from an unspecialized into a specialized state
the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement.
formation of a new individual to insure that life continues from one generation to another
condition in which the body's internl environment remains within a certain physiological limits
fluid with the cells of the body
fluid outside of body cells
extracellular fluid found in blood vessles
extracellular fluid dound in lymph
extracellular fluid found in the anterior cavity of the eye
extracellular fluid found within the ventricles and subrachnoid spaces around the brain and spinal cord
extracellular fluid that fills the microscopic spaces between the cells of tissue
the plane that passes through the body or organ at an angle between the transverse plane and either the sagittal or coronal plane
confined spaces within the body that contain internal organs. help proctect, separate, and support the organs
located near the back surface, or dorsum of the body
dorsal body cavity
formed by the carnial bones it containes the brain
formed bybthe vertebrae of the spine, it contains the soinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves
vertebral canal aka spinal canal
located on the front surface or ventral aspect of the body.
ventral body cavity
contains the following structures and spaces
defined as a double layeres membrane that lines a body cavity that does not open directly to the exterior and covers the organs within the cavity
located between the pleural cavities, it is located medial to the lungs and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column
this cavity located within the dediastinun is a fluid-filled space between the serous membrane that covers the heart called the visceral pericardium and the serous memberane called the parietal pericardium
the serous membrane that lines this cavity is known as the parietal peritoneum and the serous membrane that directly covers the organs within this cavity is known as the visceral peritoneum
superior portion of the cavity that contains the stomach, slpeen, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intertine and most of the large intestine
inferior portion of the cavity which contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and the interla organs of the reproduction
thses imags allow for visualization of the stuructures inside the body, and provide clues to both abnormal anatomy and deviations from normal physiology
x-rays passing through the body produce a two dimentional image of the interior body
x-rays beams moving in an arc around the body produce an image of a transverse section on a video monitor.
computed tomography (CT) scanning
complex x-ray image that produces a moving, three dimentional, life size image that can be rotated, tipped, sliced open, or enlarged to further evaluate or assess parts of the body
dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR)
computer comparisons of radiograph both before and after conrtast dye has been injected into the blood vessel. some images are erase which allows for an unobstructed view of blood vessels
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
positively charged radioactive particles are injected into the body
positron emission tomography (PET)
protons within atoms of the body respond to a pulse of radio waves while they are being magnetized.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
high frequency sound waves are passed into the body and reflect off various densities of body tissue