Ch3

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brandihoward07
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60816
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Ch3
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2011-01-19 23:10:23
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skeletal system
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Chapter 3-skeletal system
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  1. What does the skeletal system consist of?
    Bones, bone marrow, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa
  2. Periosteum
    tough fibrous materials that forms the outermost portion
  3. Compact
    dense, hard, very strong, forms outer protective layer of bones,
  4. Spongy bone
    lighter, not as strong, found in the ends of long bones. Red marrow is found here
  5. Medullary
    located in the shaft of the long bone and is surrounded by bone
  6. Endosteum
    Tissue that lines the medullary cavity
  7. Red bone marrow
    located within the spongy bone. Manufactures red blood cells
  8. Yellow bone marrow
    functions as a fat storage area. Located in the medullary cavity
  9. Hemopoietic
    pertaining to the formation of blood cells.
  10. Cartilage
    is smooth rubbery tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones
  11. Articular cartilage
    covers the surface of the bones where they come together to form joints.
  12. Meniscus
    curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints
  13. Diaphysis
    shaft of a long bone
  14. Epiphysis
    covered with articular cartilage Proximal and distal
  15. Foramen
    Opening in bone. It houses blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments. This allows attachment
  16. Process
    Projection on the surface of a bone. Serves as attachment surface for ligaments and tendons.
  17. Joints
    AKA-articulations
    The place of union between 2 or more bones.
  18. Fibrous Joints
    Consist of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue. These joints are knows as sutures in adults.
  19. Fontanelles
    soft spots
  20. Cartilaginous Joints
    where ribs connect to the sternum.
  21. Pubic symphysis
    allows movement to facilitate childbirth.
  22. synovial joints
    created where 2 bones articulate to permit a variety of motions
  23. Synovial capsule
    outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint.
  24. Synovial membrane
    lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
  25. Synovial fluid
    flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant
  26. Bursa
    Fibrous sac. Cushion to ease movement. Shoulder, elbow, knee joints, where tendon passes over a bone.
  27. Axial
    protects the major organs.
  28. Appendicular
    makes body movements possible. Also protects organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction.
  29. Ankylosis
    loss or absence of mobility in a joint or due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
  30. Arthrosclerosis
    stiffness of the joints
  31. Bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa
  32. Chondroma
    slow growing benign tumor originating from cartilage cells
  33. Costochondritis
    Inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum.
  34. Hallux Valgus- aka bunion.
    Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe.
  35. Hemarthrosis
    blood within a joint.
  36. Synovitis
    inflammation of the synovial membrane.
  37. Synovitis
    inflammation of the synovial membrane.
  38. Dislocation is also known as luxation.
    It is the total displacement of a bone from its joint.
  39. Subluxation
    partial displacement of a bone from its joint
  40. Osteoarthritis
    wear and tear arthritis. Known as DJD- degenerative joint disease
  41. Spondylosis
    also known as degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function. Aka spinal arthritis.
  42. Gouty arthritis- aka gout
    Deposits of uric acid in joints. Uric acid forms crystals in the joints of the feet and legs.
  43. Rheumatoid arthritis- aka RA.
    Chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of the body systems are attacked. The synovial membranes are inflamed and thickened causing painful, swollen, and immovable joints
  44. Ankylosing spondylitis
    a form of rheumatoid arthritis that causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae.
  45. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Autoimmune disorder that affects children 16 years old or younger. Causes stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue.
  46. Kyphosis
    abnormal increase in the outward curve of the spine.
  47. Lordosis
    abnormal increase in the forward curve of the lumbar spine.
  48. Scoliosis
    Abnormal lateral curve of the spine
  49. Herniated disk
    slipped or ruptured disk. This is the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk.
  50. Lumbago
    Low back pain. Lumbar region.
  51. Spondylolisthesis
    the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it.
  52. Spina bifida
    congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spindal canal fails to close completely around the cord.
  53. Craniostenosis
    malformation of the skull due to premature closing of the skull
  54. Fibrous dysplasia
    unknown cause. Destroys normal tissue and replaces is with fibrous tissue.
  55. Ostealgia- aka osteodynia
    Pain in the bone.
  56. Osteitis
    an inflammation of bone.
  57. Osteomalacia- adult rickets
    Softening of bones. Related to a deficiency of Vit D and Calcium
  58. Osteomyelitis
    inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone.
  59. Osteonecrosis
    Death of the bone tissue.
  60. Paget’s Disease
    unknown cause. Excessive breakdown of bone tissue followed by abnormal bone formation. Enlarged but weakened and filled with new blood vessels.
  61. Periostitis
    inflammation of the periosteum. Associated with shin splints
  62. Rickets
    infantile Osteomalacia
  63. Short stature
    dwarfism. Little people. 4’10”
  64. Talipes
    clubfoot
  65. Primary bone cancer
    rare malignant tumor that originates from bone.
  66. Secondary bone cancer
    tumors that have metastasized from other areas.
  67. Myeloma
    type of cancer that occurs in blood making cells. Often fatal.
  68. Osteochondroma
    benign bony projection covered with cartilage.
  69. Osteopenia
    thinner than average bone density in a young person. May develop osteoporosis.
  70. Compression Fracture
    vertebral crush fracture.
  71. Colles’ Fracture
    fracture at lower end of radius when person tries to stop a fall with the hands.
  72. Osteoporotic hip fracture
    broken hip. Can occur spontaneously.
  73. Closed Fracture
    simple. No open skin.
  74. Open Fracture
    compound. Skin is broken.
  75. Comminuted fracture
    one in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
  76. Greenstick
    incomplete. Bone is only partially broken.
  77. Oblique
    occurs at an angle
  78. Pathologic fracture
    weakened bone breaks under normal strain.
  79. Spiral fracture
    bone has twisted apart. Common in sports injuries.
  80. Stress fracture
    over use, small crack in bone.
  81. Transverse fracture
    occurs straight across the bone.
  82. Fat embolus
    can form when a long bone is fractured.
  83. Creptitation
    grating sound heard when ends of a bone move together
  84. Callus
    bulging deposit around a break.
  85. Ligament
    bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage.
  86. Frontal bone
    Forms the forehead
  87. Cranium
    Portion of the skull that encloses the brain
  88. Parietal bones
    2 bones that form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium
  89. occipital bone
    forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium
  90. Temporal bones
    2 bones that form the sides and base of the cranium
  91. Sphenoid bone
    forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit.
  92. Orbit
    the bony socket that surrounds and protects the eyeball.
  93. Auditory ossicles
    six tiny bones of the middle ear
  94. meatus
    external opening of the canal
  95. Nasal bones
    2 bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nose.
  96. zygomatic bones
    articulate with the frontal bones, cheekbones
  97. Maxillary bones
    2 bones form most of the upper jaw.
  98. palatine bones
    2 bones that form part of the hard palate of the mouth and floor of the nose.
  99. Lacrimal bones
    2 bones that make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye
  100. Inferior Conchae
    2 thing, scroll like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
  101. vomer bone
    forms the base for the nasal septum
  102. nasal septum
    cartilage wall that divides the two nasal cavaties
  103. mandible
    jawbone
  104. temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
    joint that attaches the mandible to the skull
  105. thoracic cavity (rib cage)
    bony structure that protects the heart and lungs
  106. ribs
    aka costals, 12 pairs, attache posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
  107. true ribs
    first 7 pairs of ribs that are attached anteriorly to the sternum
  108. false ribs
    3 pairs that are attached anteriorly to cartilage that joins with the sternum
  109. floating ribs
    last 2 pairs that are only attached posteriorly
  110. sternum
    forms the iddle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into 3 parts
  111. manubrium
    bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
  112. body of the sternum
    structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
  113. pectoral girdle
    supports the arms and hands (aka the shoulder girdle)
  114. girdle
    structure that encircles the body
  115. clavicle
    collar bone, is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
  116. scapula
    shoulder blade
  117. acromion
    an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
  118. humerus
    the bone of the upper arm
  119. radius
    smaller and shorter bone in the forearm. runs up the thumb side of the forearm
  120. ulna
    larger and longer bone of the forearm. the proximal end of the ulna articulates withe the distal end of the humerus to form the elbow joint.
  121. olecranon process
    funny bone, is a large projection on the upper und of the ulna
  122. carpals
    the bones that form the wrist
  123. metacarpals
    5 bones that form the palms of the hand
  124. phalanges
    14 bones of the fingers, also of the toes
  125. spinal column
    vertebral column, supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord
  126. vertebrae
    26, bony structure units of the spinal column
  127. body of the vertebra
    solid anterior portion
  128. lamina
    posterior portion of the vertebra
  129. vertebral foramen
    the opening in the middle of the vertebra
  130. cervical vertebrae
    the first set of seven vertebrae that for the neck c1-c7
  131. thoracic vertebrae
    second set of 12 vertebrae, form the outward curve of the spine. t1-t12
  132. lumbar vertebrae
    last 5 vertebrae, form inward curve of the lower spine. l1-l5
  133. sacrum
    slightly curved, triangular shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back
  134. coccyx
    form the end of the spine and is actually made up of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together.
  135. intervertebral disks
    made of cartilage, separate and cusion the vertebrae from each other
  136. pelvic girdle
    pelvis or hips, protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities
  137. ilium
    broad blade shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone
  138. sacroiliac
    slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium
  139. ischium
    forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting
  140. pubis
    forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, which is just below the urinary bladder
  141. pubic bones
    the ileum,ichium, and the pubis art separate at birth but fuse together. Held together by the pubic symphysis
  142. acetabulum
    hip socket, the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.
  143. femur
    the upper leg bone
  144. knees
    complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg
  145. popliteal
    means referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the legaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located
  146. cruciate ligaments
    make possible the movements of the knee. Known as the anterior and posterior cruciate legaments
  147. tibia
    the larger weight bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg (shin bone)
  148. fibula
    the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg
  149. malleolus
    rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle
  150. ankles
    form the joint between the lower leg and the foot.
  151. tarsals
    seven bones that make up the ankle
  152. talus
    the anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula
  153. calcaneus
    heel bone, the largest of the tarsal bones
  154. metatarsals
    5 bones that form part of the foot to which the toes are attached
  155. phchiropractor
    holds dr of chiropractic degree and specialized in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine.
  156. orthopedic surgeon
    a physician who speacilizes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
  157. osteopath
    dr of osteopathy and uess traiditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation.
  158. podiatrist
    speacializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
  159. radiograph
    x-ray
  160. arthroscopy
    visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
  161. bone marrow biopsy
    diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test
  162. bone marrow aspiration
    the use of a syringe to withdraw the liquid bone marrow
  163. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints
  164. bone scan
    a form of nuclear medicine
  165. bone density testing
    used to determine losses or changes in bone density
  166. ultrasonic bone density testing
    a screening test for osteoporsoris or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass
  167. dual x-ray absorptiometry
    a low exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
  168. bone marrow transplant
    used to treat certain types of cancers
  169. allogenic bone marrow transplant
    uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor
  170. allogenic
    originating within another
  171. autologous bone marrow transplant
    the patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed, treated, and then stored before the remaining bone marrow is destroyed
  172. autologous
    originating within and individual
  173. arthotic
    mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
  174. prosthesis
    a substitute for a diseased or msising body part
  175. arthrodesis
    surgical ankylosis, is a surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint
  176. arthrolysis
    a surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
  177. arthroscopic surgery
    a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
  178. bursectomy
    the surgical removal of a bursa
  179. chondroplasty
    surgical repair of damaged cartilage
  180. chondr/o
    cartilage
  181. burs
    bursa
  182. synovectomy
    the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
  183. arthroplasty
    the surgical repair of a damanged joint
  184. bone-conserving hip resurfacing
    an alternative to removing the head of the femur. function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum
  185. revision surgery
    is the replacement of a worn or failed implant
  186. percutaneous diskectomy
    treats a herniated intervertebral disk. a thin tube is inserted through the skin of the back to suction out the ruptured disk or to vaporize it with a laser
  187. percutaneous vertebroplasty
    treats osteoporosis related compression fracture. bone cement is injected to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal column
  188. laminectomy
    surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra
  189. osteoclasis
    surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
  190. periosteotomy
    an incision through the periosteum to the bone
  191. closed reduction
    the attempted realignment of the bone involeved in a fracture or joint dislocation
  192. traction
    a puling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effor to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
  193. external fixation
    a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieaces of bone firmly in place during healing
  194. internal fixation
    a fracture treatment which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place. usually not removed after the fracture heals

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