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Chapter 3-skeletal system
What does the skeletal system consist of?
Bones, bone marrow, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa
tough fibrous materials that forms the outermost portion
dense, hard, very strong, forms outer protective layer of bones,
lighter, not as strong, found in the ends of long bones. Red marrow is found here
located in the shaft of the long bone and is surrounded by bone
Tissue that lines the medullary cavity
Red bone marrow
located within the spongy bone. Manufactures red blood cells
Yellow bone marrow
functions as a fat storage area. Located in the medullary cavity
pertaining to the formation of blood cells.
is smooth rubbery tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones
covers the surface of the bones where they come together to form joints.
curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints
shaft of a long bone
covered with articular cartilage Proximal and distal
Opening in bone. It houses blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments. This allows attachment
Projection on the surface of a bone. Serves as attachment surface for ligaments and tendons.
The place of union between 2 or more bones.
Consist of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue. These joints are knows as sutures in adults.
where ribs connect to the sternum.
allows movement to facilitate childbirth.
created where 2 bones articulate to permit a variety of motions
outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint.
lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant
Fibrous sac. Cushion to ease movement. Shoulder, elbow, knee joints, where tendon passes over a bone.
protects the major organs.
makes body movements possible. Also protects organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction.
loss or absence of mobility in a joint or due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
stiffness of the joints
inflammation of a bursa
slow growing benign tumor originating from cartilage cells
Inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum.
Hallux Valgus- aka bunion.
Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe.
blood within a joint.
inflammation of the synovial membrane.
inflammation of the synovial membrane.
Dislocation is also known as luxation.
It is the total displacement of a bone from its joint.
partial displacement of a bone from its joint
wear and tear arthritis. Known as DJD- degenerative joint disease
also known as degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function. Aka spinal arthritis.
Gouty arthritis- aka gout
Deposits of uric acid in joints. Uric acid forms crystals in the joints of the feet and legs.
Rheumatoid arthritis- aka RA.
Chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of the body systems are attacked. The synovial membranes are inflamed and thickened causing painful, swollen, and immovable joints
a form of rheumatoid arthritis that causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Autoimmune disorder that affects children 16 years old or younger. Causes stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue.
abnormal increase in the outward curve of the spine.
abnormal increase in the forward curve of the lumbar spine.
Abnormal lateral curve of the spine
slipped or ruptured disk. This is the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk.
Low back pain. Lumbar region.
the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it.
congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spindal canal fails to close completely around the cord.
malformation of the skull due to premature closing of the skull
unknown cause. Destroys normal tissue and replaces is with fibrous tissue.
Ostealgia- aka osteodynia
Pain in the bone.
an inflammation of bone.
Osteomalacia- adult rickets
Softening of bones. Related to a deficiency of Vit D and Calcium
inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone.
Death of the bone tissue.
unknown cause. Excessive breakdown of bone tissue followed by abnormal bone formation. Enlarged but weakened and filled with new blood vessels.
inflammation of the periosteum. Associated with shin splints
dwarfism. Little people. 4’10”
Primary bone cancer
rare malignant tumor that originates from bone.
Secondary bone cancer
tumors that have metastasized from other areas.
type of cancer that occurs in blood making cells. Often fatal.
benign bony projection covered with cartilage.
thinner than average bone density in a young person. May develop osteoporosis.
vertebral crush fracture.
fracture at lower end of radius when person tries to stop a fall with the hands.
Osteoporotic hip fracture
broken hip. Can occur spontaneously.
simple. No open skin.
compound. Skin is broken.
one in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
incomplete. Bone is only partially broken.
occurs at an angle
weakened bone breaks under normal strain.
bone has twisted apart. Common in sports injuries.
over use, small crack in bone.
occurs straight across the bone.
can form when a long bone is fractured.
grating sound heard when ends of a bone move together
bulging deposit around a break.
bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage.
Forms the forehead
Portion of the skull that encloses the brain
2 bones that form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium
forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium
2 bones that form the sides and base of the cranium
forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit.
the bony socket that surrounds and protects the eyeball.
six tiny bones of the middle ear
external opening of the canal
2 bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nose.
articulate with the frontal bones, cheekbones
2 bones form most of the upper jaw.
2 bones that form part of the hard palate of the mouth and floor of the nose.
2 bones that make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye
2 thing, scroll like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
forms the base for the nasal septum
cartilage wall that divides the two nasal cavaties
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
joint that attaches the mandible to the skull
thoracic cavity (rib cage)
bony structure that protects the heart and lungs
aka costals, 12 pairs, attache posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
first 7 pairs of ribs that are attached anteriorly to the sternum
3 pairs that are attached anteriorly to cartilage that joins with the sternum
last 2 pairs that are only attached posteriorly
forms the iddle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into 3 parts
bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
body of the sternum
structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
supports the arms and hands (aka the shoulder girdle)
structure that encircles the body
collar bone, is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
the bone of the upper arm
smaller and shorter bone in the forearm. runs up the thumb side of the forearm
larger and longer bone of the forearm. the proximal end of the ulna articulates withe the distal end of the humerus to form the elbow joint.
funny bone, is a large projection on the upper und of the ulna
the bones that form the wrist
5 bones that form the palms of the hand
14 bones of the fingers, also of the toes
vertebral column, supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord
26, bony structure units of the spinal column
body of the vertebra
solid anterior portion
posterior portion of the vertebra
the opening in the middle of the vertebra
the first set of seven vertebrae that for the neck c1-c7
second set of 12 vertebrae, form the outward curve of the spine. t1-t12
last 5 vertebrae, form inward curve of the lower spine. l1-l5
slightly curved, triangular shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back
form the end of the spine and is actually made up of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together.
made of cartilage, separate and cusion the vertebrae from each other
pelvis or hips, protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities
broad blade shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone
slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium
forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting
forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, which is just below the urinary bladder
the ileum,ichium, and the pubis art separate at birth but fuse together. Held together by the pubic symphysis
hip socket, the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.
the upper leg bone
complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg
means referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the legaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located
make possible the movements of the knee. Known as the anterior and posterior cruciate legaments
the larger weight bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg (shin bone)
the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg
rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle
form the joint between the lower leg and the foot.
seven bones that make up the ankle
the anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula
heel bone, the largest of the tarsal bones
5 bones that form part of the foot to which the toes are attached
holds dr of chiropractic degree and specialized in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine.
a physician who speacilizes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
dr of osteopathy and uess traiditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation.
speacializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
bone marrow biopsy
diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test
bone marrow aspiration
the use of a syringe to withdraw the liquid bone marrow
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints
a form of nuclear medicine
bone density testing
used to determine losses or changes in bone density
ultrasonic bone density testing
a screening test for osteoporsoris or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass
dual x-ray absorptiometry
a low exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
bone marrow transplant
used to treat certain types of cancers
allogenic bone marrow transplant
uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor
originating within another
autologous bone marrow transplant
the patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed, treated, and then stored before the remaining bone marrow is destroyed
originating within and individual
mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
a substitute for a diseased or msising body part
surgical ankylosis, is a surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint
a surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
the surgical removal of a bursa
surgical repair of damaged cartilage
the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
the surgical repair of a damanged joint
bone-conserving hip resurfacing
an alternative to removing the head of the femur. function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum
is the replacement of a worn or failed implant
treats a herniated intervertebral disk. a thin tube is inserted through the skin of the back to suction out the ruptured disk or to vaporize it with a laser
treats osteoporosis related compression fracture. bone cement is injected to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal column
surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra
surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
an incision through the periosteum to the bone
the attempted realignment of the bone involeved in a fracture or joint dislocation
a puling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effor to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieaces of bone firmly in place during healing
a fracture treatment which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place. usually not removed after the fracture heals