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What are values?
- A person's tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. (aka. Your core guiding principles)
- What matters to you
- Values are also represented in organizational missions
What is Work Centrality (Work Involvement)?
The extent to which work is an individuals central life interest.
What are the managerial implications with Work Centrality?
- Work centrality is:
- Related to the avg. # of hours worked
- Related to the avg. # of vacation days
What are the Values Across Cultures-Hofstede's Study?
- Power Distance
- Essentially how hierarchal a country/environment a person wants to be with
- Uncertainty avoidance
- Wants stuff needs to be spelt out/ no grey zone
- The general roles and how formal and informal they are
- Individualism/ Collectivism
- Is it based on the company as a whole or the individual within it
- Long-term/Short-term Orientation
- Look more long term or more so short term and save face
What are Attitudes and what are their components?
- Fairly stable favorable or unfavorable evaluations of specific objects, situations, persons, or categories of people (aka. positive or negative view on situations)
- Affective (feel) + Cognitive (think) = Behaviour
What is Job Satisfaction?
Collection of attitudes about ones job (how favorable one looks at their job)
What are the facets of Satisfaction?
- Work tasks (work itself)
What determines Job Satisfaction?
- Disposition - Some people are predisposed to be more satisfied
- Discrepancy - How well employers meet their employees expectations
- Fairness - Perceptions of fairness in the workplace (aka. Organizational Justice)
What are the three types of Justice?
- Distributive - How fair are the outcomes of the decisions?
- Equity - Merit based decisions
- Equality - everyone has a fair chance of getting the same outcome
- Need - Outcome goes to who needs it the most
- Procedural - How fair is the process that was used to make this decision?
- Accurate information- are you using accurate information to make decisions
- Two-way communication - employees feel they have voice in certain matters
- Appeals are welcome - is there a way to talk to a supervisor and appeal a decision
- Interactional Fairness - Perception of the fairness
- of the interpersonal treatment
- Interpersonal - has one been treated with dignity and respect
- Informational - given adequate information for the decision
Why should Managers Care about job satisfaction?
- High job satisfaction is related to:
- Increase Task Performance and OCB
- Increase Customer Satisfaction
- Increase Off the job satisfaction
- Increase Mental Health
- Decrease Absenteeism
- Decrease Propensity to Turnover
What is Organizational Commitment?
An attitude that reflects the strength of the attachment that an employee feels towards the organization
What are the three types of Organizational Commitment?
- Employees' identification with involvement in the organization
- Staying because you WANT to
- Feeling of obligation to remain loyal
- Staying because you OUGHT to
- Perceptions of costs associated with staying vs. leaving
- Staying because you NEED to