Breast and Pectoral Region

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Breast and Pectoral Region
2011-02-02 14:06:26
Anatomy S1L3

Breast and Pectoral Region
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  1. Articulation between the acromial facet of clavicle & the acromion process of scapula are
    Acromioclavicular lig. (synovial joint)
  2. Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation (Shoulder Separation)
    • Joint may dislocate with or without coracoclavicular lig. rupture. If ligament ruptures:
    • - Shoulder falls inferiorly (from weight of upper limb)
    • - May tear fibrous layer of joint capsule
    • - Acromion becomes more prominent (projecting) Lateral clavicle may displace superiorly (projecting)
  3. All of the muscles in the body are covered by
    Fascia (Deep or investing)
  4. The pectoral major facia is called
    The pectoral fascia
  5. Pectoralis minor muscle is covered by
    covered by clavipectoral fascia
  6. Clavicular head of the pectoral muscle action
    flex humerus
  7. Sternocostal head of the pectoral muscle action
    Extend humerus from flexed position
  8. Clavicular head and Sternocostal head TOGETHER action
    Adduction & medial rotation of arm
  9. Clavicular head and Sternocostal head innervation
    Lateral + Medial Pectoral nn
  10. What is the most commonly fractured bone in the body
  11. Pectoralis Minor action and innervation
    • Action
    • Stabilize scapula
    • (draws it inferiorly & anteriorly)

    Innervation Medial Pectoral n
  12. Serratus Anterior action and innervation
    • Action
    • Protract scapula
    • Rotate scapula superiorly

    • Innervation
    • Long thoracic n. (C5, C6, C7)

    • To Test
    • Press hand of outstretched limb against a wall
  13. A patient presents with the deformity shown below when she presses her hands against a wall. You conclude that she likely suffers from injury to the long thoracic nerve. This patient will also have difficult with what movement?
    Fully raising her arm above her head (full abduction)
  14. The subclavian artery changes names going inferiorly to
    Axillary artery once it passes over the lateral border of rib 1

    Brachial a. when it passes the inferior border of the teres major
  15. Branches of the clavicular artery include
    Thyrocervical trunk

    Dorsal scapular a.
  16. What artery feeds to the back of the scapula
    Dorsal scapular a.
  17. Another name for colateral circulation is
    Anastomoses (receiving blood from more then one branch)
  18. The Branches of the Axillary A. are
    • Thoraco acromial a.
    • Circumflex humeral a.(Post and Ant)
    • Subscapular a.
  19. The pectoralis minor muscle plays an important role in stabilizing the scapula. The somatic motor innervation for this muscle is most commonly provided by which nerve(s)?
    Medial pectoral
  20. Polymastia is
    Accessory breast
  21. polythelia
    extra nipples
  22. Amastia
    absence of breast(s)
  23. Gynecomastia
    abnormally large breasts in males
  24. Suspensory ligament (of Cooper)
    Support the breast, they originate at the pectoral fascia and end on the inside of the skin on the breast
  25. Women have 20-50
    • Mammary gland lobule,
    • Lactiferous duct (there are always the same of both)
  26. Breast implants are most commonly put where
    Retromammary Space
  27. A women can gain three pounds in pregnancy weight from
    Just the enlargement of the breast
  28. Breast cancer frequently spreads by
    lymphogenic metastasis
  29. 75% Of the lymph fluid in the breast drains to
    Axillary lymph nodes, initially through the pectoral nodes
  30. If cancer cells invade glandular tissue
    • Shortened suspensory ligs
    • Large skin dimpling
  31. Cancer cells invade lactiferous ducts they
    Shortened ducts Retracted, deviated nipple
  32. When Cancer cells interfere with lymph drainage
    • Lymphedema (excess fluid, swelling)
    • ‘Peau d’orange’ Sign: Thickened, puffy skin between small, dimpled pores
  33. When Cancer cells invade retromammary space, pectoral fascia, or interpectoral lymph nodes
    • Breast elevates when pec major contracts
    • To Test: Hands on hips, press while pulling elbows forward
  34. During a follow-up exam after a modified radical mastectomy of the right breast, you notice that the patient is unable to full abduct her ipsilateral arm. Which nerve is likely to have been injured during this patient’s surgery?