endocrine system

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Author:
NurseNatalie
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60974
Filename:
endocrine system
Updated:
2011-01-28 17:45:46
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  1. What are the endocrine clands
    • Hypothalamus (a neuroendocrine gland)
    • •Pituitary gland
    • •Adrenal glands
    • •Thyroid gland
    • •Islet cells of the pancreas
    • •Parathyroid glands
    • •Gonads
  2. What is simple feedback?
    based upon blood values
  3. What is negative feedback
    • a gland response for increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone
    • ie. insulin or PTH
  4. What is positive feedback?
    • increases target organ beyond normal
    • ie oxytocin
  5. What is complex feedback?
    • Usually involves several glands
    • ie T3 and T4 Relaease
  6. Steroids _____ in mornings and _____ in evenings. Growth Hormones _____ during sleep
    • rise
    • decrease
    • peak
  7. The hypothalamus is known for
    • being an important part of endocrine system
    • produces hormones
    • working closely with pituitary gland
    • releasing and inhibiting hormones
    • coordinates with ANS to produce fear and anger
  8. Anterior Pituitary
    • larger portion
    • regulated by hypothalamus
    • Releases the Growth Hormone, Prolactin ( breast development and lactation), and Tropic hormones (controls and secretes other hormones by other glands
  9. Posterior Pituitary
    • is an extension of the hypothalamus
    • ADH and Oxytocin are produced in hypothalmus but stored in posterior pituitary
  10. ADH
    • when stimulated the renal tubules reabsorb water
    • creating a concentrated urine
    • regulated by fluid volume and plasma concentration
  11. Oxytocin
    • Stimulates the production of milk into mammary ducts
    • Contract uterine smooth muscle
    • Released by stimulation of touch receptors in the nipples of lactating women
  12. What are 2 pituitary disorders?
    • Gigantism: excessive secretion before the closing of the epiphysis
    • Acromegly: excessive secretion after the closing of the epiphysis
  13. SIADH
    Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone, leading to fluid retention, dilutional hyponatremia, and concentrated urine
  14. DI
    • Diabetes Insipidus. This is a deficiency of ADH
    • increased urine output
    • dilute urine
  15. What is the function of the theyroid gland
    the release of triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4)
  16. T3 and T4 control what?
    • metabolism
    • Both hormones increase metabolism, which causes an increase in oxygen use and heat production in all tissues.
  17. Calcitonin
    • produced by the thyroid
    • in response to high levels of calcum
    • inhibits reabsorption of bones , increases excretion of Ca
  18. PTH
    • increases bone resorption,
    • resulting in calcium release into blood, and promotes the reabsorption of calcium and excretion of phosphorus
    • activates Vitamin D
  19. Adrenal Medulla
    • releases catecholamines
    • has an effect on all body systems
  20. Adrenal Cortex
    • Releases more than 50 steroid hormones
    • * glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    • - effect on glucose metabolism
    • - antiinflammatory action
    • - stress response released by negative feedback (CRH and ACTH)
    • * mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
    • -released in response to fluid volume and altered potassium levels
  21. What is an Adrenal Cortex Disorder?
    • Cushing Syndrome: excess glucocorticoids
    • Addison's Disease: generally all 3 glucocorticoids are decreased
  22. A tumor of the adrenal medulla accompanied by hypertension is known as what
    Pheochromocytoma
  23. The alpha cells in the pancreas release what and the beta cells in the pancreas release what
    • alpha- glucogan
    • beta- insulin
  24. What are some Thyroid disorders?
    • Goiter
    • Nodules
    • Hyper and Hypothyroidism
    • Thyroiditis
  25. exopthalomus, heat intolerance, anxiety, and Graves disease all indicate
    Hyperthyroidism
  26. mineralcorticoids help control the body's
    sodium and potassium levels
  27. Cortisol effects
    • Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
    • •The body's response to stress
    • •Emotional stability
    • •Immune function
  28. thyrocalcitonin (TCT) helps regulate
    serum calcium levels
  29. When do steroids rise and decline?
    When do growth hormones peak?
    • steroids rise in the morning and decline at night
    • growth hormones peak during sleep
  30. what kind of foods should be fed to a pt with hyperthyroidism?
    high in calorie, protein, carbohydrates
  31. what position should a pt that has had a thyroidectomy be in?
    Semi Fowlers – avoid flexion of neck, neutral position of neck
  32. In a pt with hypothyroidsim, what should we be concerned about?
    Alert to hypoglycemia and hyponatremia
  33. If a patient is hyponatremic from hypothyroidism, what kind of solution would be good to use for IV therapy
    • hypertonic solution
    • also iv glucose
  34. Hyperparathyroidism is characterized by
    • characterized by bone decalcification and the development of renal stones containing calcium
    • can have hypercalcemia
  35. What are some conservative treatment options for a pt with hypercalcemia (hyperparathyroidism)
    • Fluids
    • Increase salt – increase Ca+ excretion
    • Limit Ca+
    • Medications: (depends if primary or secondary hyperthyroidism)
  36. The troussea and chvostek signs are indicitave of what and possible what?
    • hypocalcemia
    • hypoparathyroidism

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