Card Set Information
What are the endocrine clands
Hypothalamus (a neuroendocrine gland)
•Islet cells of the pancreas
What is simple feedback?
based upon blood values
What is negative feedback
a gland response for increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone
ie. insulin or PTH
What is positive feedback?
increases target organ beyond normal
What is complex feedback?
Usually involves several glands
ie T3 and T4 Relaease
Steroids _____ in mornings and _____ in evenings. Growth Hormones _____ during sleep
The hypothalamus is known for
being an important part of endocrine system
working closely with pituitary gland
releasing and inhibiting hormones
coordinates with ANS to produce fear and anger
regulated by hypothalamus
Releases the Growth Hormone, Prolactin ( breast development and lactation), and Tropic hormones (controls and secretes other hormones by other glands
is an extension of the hypothalamus
ADH and Oxytocin are produced in hypothalmus but stored in posterior pituitary
when stimulated the renal tubules reabsorb water
creating a concentrated urine
regulated by fluid volume and plasma concentration
Stimulates the production of milk into mammary ducts
Contract uterine smooth muscle
Released by stimulation of touch receptors in the nipples of lactating women
What are 2 pituitary disorders?
: excessive secretion before the closing of the epiphysis
: excessive secretion after the closing of the epiphysis
Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone, leading to fluid retention, dilutional hyponatremia, and concentrated urine
Diabetes Insipidus. This is a deficiency of ADH
increased urine output
What is the function of the theyroid gland
the release of triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4)
T3 and T4 control what?
Both hormones increase metabolism, which causes an increase in oxygen use and heat production in all tissues.
produced by the thyroid
in response to high levels of calcum
inhibits reabsorption of bones , increases excretion of Ca
increases bone resorption,
resulting in calcium release into blood, and promotes the reabsorption of calcium and excretion of phosphorus
activates Vitamin D
has an effect on all body systems
Releases more than 50 steroid hormones
* glucocorticoids (cortisol)
- effect on glucose metabolism
- antiinflammatory action
- stress response released by negative feedback (CRH and ACTH)
-released in response to fluid volume and altered potassium levels
What is an Adrenal Cortex Disorder?
: excess glucocorticoids
: generally all 3 glucocorticoids are decreased
A tumor of the adrenal medulla accompanied by hypertension is known as what
The alpha cells in the pancreas release what and the beta cells in the pancreas release what
What are some Thyroid disorders?
Hyper and Hypothyroidism
exopthalomus, heat intolerance, anxiety, and Graves disease all indicate
mineralcorticoids help control the body's
sodium and potassium levels
Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
•The body's response to stress
thyrocalcitonin (TCT) helps regulate
serum calcium levels
When do steroids rise and decline?
When do growth hormones peak?
steroids rise in the morning and decline at night
growth hormones peak during sleep
what kind of foods should be fed to a pt with hyperthyroidism?
high in calorie, protein, carbohydrates
what position should a pt that has had a thyroidectomy be in?
Semi Fowlers – avoid flexion of neck, neutral position of neck
In a pt with hypothyroidsim, what should we be concerned about?
Alert to hypoglycemia and hyponatremia
If a patient is hyponatremic from hypothyroidism, what kind of solution would be good to use for IV therapy
also iv glucose
Hyperparathyroidism is characterized by
characterized by bone decalcification and the development of renal stones containing calcium
can have hypercalcemia
What are some conservative treatment options for a pt with hypercalcemia (hyperparathyroidism)
Increase salt – increase Ca+ excretion
: (depends if primary or secondary hyperthyroidism)
The troussea and chvostek signs are indicitave of what and possible what?