Biology 121

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taylorbialkowski
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60994
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Biology 121
Updated:
2011-01-24 14:10:00
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bio test
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Biology 121 test 1
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  1. What are the 6 steps of the scientific method?
    • 1. observations
    • 2. questions
    • 3. hypothesis (statement of potential outcome)
    • 4. data
    • 5. conclusion
    • 6. theory
  2. Broadest scientific generalization, based on many experiments over a broad range of conditions
    Law, ex: law of gravity
  3. organization
    growth
    metabolism
    adaptation
    response to stimuli
    reproduction
    Living (vs. non-living)
  4. cells --> tissues --> organs --> organ systems --> organisms
    Hierarchy
  5. All biochemical processes occurring within a cell
    Metabolism
  6. Anabolism
    synthesis (uses energy)
  7. Catabolism
    "breakdown" of organic compounds to yield energy
  8. Growth- increase in mass OR increase in numbers requires:
    energy
  9. changes in response to environment, requires two things:
    1. ability to change, result of mutations
    2. ability to detect changes in environment
    Adaptation
  10. Ability to produce offspring
    Reproduction
  11. Reproduction (explained)
    • 1. offspring carry genetic material of parent
    • 2. genetic material changes over time, leads to difference within individuals in population
    • 3. cells contain heritable info:
    • -deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): ATGC- this sequence determines info carried, codes for proteins (and RNA)
    • -inheritance is based on mechanism for copying DNA, and passing DNA from parent to offspring
    • -**all forms of life use similar genetic code**
  12. ability of organism to interact with its environment, ex: heat, cold, pain, pressure, radiation, taste (includes other organisms and nonliving factors)
    Response to stimuli
  13. cooling/heating of body
    feedback mechanisms
    chemical mediators
    Regulation/homeostasis
  14. structure
    gives clues about what something does
  15. function
    gives clues about how something is constructed
  16. self replicating protein, ex: mad cow
    prions
  17. self replicating RNA, no protection, very unusual, causes diseases in plants
    viroids
  18. made up of proteins and nucleic acid, no cells, have some properties of life but not others
    viruses
  19. property that emerges as a result of interactions between components
    emergent properties
  20. .22 microns/micrometers
    Light microscope
  21. person who 'named' cells in 1665
    Robert Hooke
  22. Matthias Schleidan and Theodore Schwann
    came up with cell theory: all living things are made of cells, and later on: all cells come from preexisting cells
  23. ability to observe more detail in cells using ______, became popular in 1954, greater resolution
    Electron Microscope
  24. No membrane enclosed nucleus
    No organelles
    Smaller ribosomes
    Cell wall made of unique molecules
    Bacteria and Archaebacteria
    70 S Ribosomes
    Prokaryotic cells
  25. More complexity and organization
    Membrane enclosed nucleus
    Chromosomes
    Larger ribosomes
    Organelles
    Protists, fungi, plants, animals
    Eukaryotic cells
  26. new species arise from more ancient ones through "descent with modification"
    Evolution
  27. mechanism of evolutionary change, acts on populations not individuals, accounts for unity and diversity, survival of the fittest
    natural selection
  28. substance that cannot be changed into another substance by normal chemical reactions
    elements
  29. 1. proton: atomic mass of 1, positive charge
    2. neutron: atomic mass of 1, no charge
    3. electron: no atomic mass, negative charge
    Atom
  30. Atomic number
    Number of protons
  31. different number of neutrons
    Isotopes (excessive number of neutrons make unstable isotopes and are said to be radioactive)
  32. _________ occupy orbitals around atoms
    electrons
  33. each orbital corresponds to an _________ _________
    energy level
  34. outer electrons are known as _________ electrons and contain most energy (outermost shell)
    valence
  35. valence electrons are involved in _________ bonding
    chemical
  36. -2 or more atoms form a molecule
    -chemical formulas are used to describe atoms
    Chemical reactions
  37. shared electrons, atoms with partially filled electron shells, shared electrons fill cells, polar or non-polar
    Covalent bonds
  38. atoms lose or gain electrons and become charged, involve atoms with almost filled or almost empty electron shells, ionize (dissolve) in water
    Ionic bonds, ex: NaCl (salt)
  39. hydrogen bonds, involved partially charged hydrogen atoms, individual bonds weak but collectively strong, very important in molecular structure and biological molecules and water
    Chemical bonds
  40. Anything that is polar is ________
    ex: H2O --> O (-)
    / \
    H H (+)
    oxygen is so much larger so it pulls hydrogen towards it
    charged
  41. chemical reactions resulting in transfer of electrons from one atom to another
    Redox Reactions
  42. looser of electrons
    oxidation
  43. gainer of electrons
    reduced
  44. essential to life, polar molecules, good solvent, cohesion and adhesion, helps maintain stable temperature: high specific heat, high heat of vaporization
    Water
  45. water molecules being bound to each other
    cohesion
  46. water molecules being bound to another molecule (other molecules)
    adhesion
  47. prevent other molecules from stealing your electrons
    antioxidants
  48. water slightly dissociates into OH- and H+, pure water has an H+ concentration of 1x10-7 moles per liter (0.0000001 moles)
    Acids/Bases
  49. hydrogen donors
    acids
  50. hydrogen acceptors
    bases
  51. pH is a measure of _______, and of most living cells is about 7.0

    acidity or basic
    acidity
  52. the more H+ in the water, the ________ level of acidity in the water

    higher or lower
    higher
  53. solute + solvent = _________
    solution
  54. used to "stabilize" pH, weak acids/bases
    buffers
  55. acids and bases react to form _______
    salts
  56. If water has a change from a pH of 3 to a pH of 5, how many log units is that? And is H+ going up or down in concentration?
    100x less acid, and going down in H+ concentration
  57. Increase of acid = increase of __ concentration
    H+
  58. 4 valence electrons, can potentially form 4 bonds, bonds to CHNOPS
    Carbon
  59. CHNOPS: 6 elements necessary for life
    Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
  60. changing shape of molecule
    conformation

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