chapter 2 and 3 ling

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chapter 2 and 3 ling
2011-01-20 22:14:22

phonetics ling
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  1. the branch of linguistics that examines the inventory and structure of sounds of language
  2. the component of a grammar made up of elements and principles that determine how sounds pattern in a language.
  3. the universal system for transcribing the sounds of speech which has been developing since 1888
    International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA)
  4. a vowel that shows a noticeable change in quality during its production
  5. vowels that are perceived as relatively more prominent due to the combined efforts of pitch loudness and length
    Stressed vowels
  6. a unit of linguistic structure that consists of a syllabic element and any segments that are associated with it
  7. a precise description of the sounds using lots of detail enclosed in square brackets
    narrow transcription
  8. a description of word order in sentences with less detail needed just enough to distinguish one word from another enclosed in slashes
    broad transcription
  9. an approach to phonetics that studies the physiological mechanisms of speech production
    articulatory phonetics
  10. the small ridge that protrudes from just behind the upper teeth
    alveolar ridge
  11. the highest part of the roof of the mouth
  12. the soft area towards the rear of the roof of the mouth
  13. the small fleshy flap of tissue that hangs down from the velum
  14. the flap below the back of the throat that covers the wind pipe when you swallow
  15. the area of the throat between the uvula and the larynx
  16. the box-like structure located in the throat through which air passes during speech production commonly known as the voicebox
  17. a historical process in which voiceless sound becomes voiced
  18. the space between the vocal folds
  19. parts of the vocal tract particularly the lips, tongue tip, tongue body, and larynx
    major articulators
  20. sounds that are produced with a narrow or complete closure in the vowel tract
  21. sounds that are produced with little obstruction in the vocal tract and that are generally voiced
  22. the various configurations produced by positioning the lips tongue, velum, and glottis in different ways (e.g.. nasal, fricative, liquid)
    manner of articulation
  23. sounds made with complete and monetary closure of air flow through the vocal tract (e.g. the initial sounds of pleasure and grab)
  24. a manner feature that characterizes any sound made with the velum lowered
  25. sounds produced by lowering the velum allowing air to pass through the nasal passages
    nasal sounds
  26. consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth accompanied by a continuous audible noise
  27. non-continuant consonants that show a slow release of the closure
  28. involves less obstruction than a fricative but more than a vowel
  29. when the tip of the tongue makes full contact with the alveolar ridge but one side of the tongue is lowered
    lateral approximant
  30. the glottal state in which the vocal folds are brought close together but not tightly closed causing air passing through them to vibrate
  31. the glottal state in which the vocal folds are pulled apart allowing air to pass directly through the glottis
  32. the points at which the airstream can be modified to produce different sounds
    places of articulation(points of articulation)
  33. features that represent place of articulation
    place of articulation features
  34. consonants that involve closure or constriction of the two lips
  35. sounds involving the lower lip and upper teeth (e.g the initial sounds of freedom and vintage)
  36. sounds made with the tongue placed against or near the teeth
  37. consonant sound produced with the tip of the tongue and the alveolar ridge
  38. sounds produced with the tongue tip in the region behind the alveolar ridge
    post- alveolars
  39. sounds produced with the tongue on or near the palate
  40. sounds made with the tongue touching or near the velum
  41. sounds produced by using the vocal folds as the primary articulators
  42. a class of sounds that shares a feature or features(e.g. voiced stops)
    natural class of sounds
  43. a vowel that is made with the tongue neither raised nor lowered(e.g. the vowels sounds in set and coke)
    mid vowel
  44. vowel produced with the tongue body neither forward nor retracted
    central vowel
  45. a vowel with greater constriction opposite of open
    close vowel
  46. a vowel with less constriction , opposite of close
    open vowel
  47. drawing together of the corners of the lips as in rounder vowels
  48. sounds made with the lips protruding
  49. a set of muscles inside the larynx that may be positioned in various ways to produce different glottal states
    vocal folds(vocal cords)
  50. the oral cavity, nasal cavity and pharynx
    vocal tract
  51. the muscles between the ribs that help maintain the air pressure necessary for speech production
  52. the large sheet of muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdomen and helps maintain the air pressure necessary for speech production
  53. the tube below the larynx through which air travels when it leaves the lungs; commonly known as the windpipe
  54. the cartilage that forms the main portion of the larynx spreading outward like the head of a plow
    thyroid cartilage
  55. the ring shaped cartilage in the larynx on which the thyroid cartilage rests
    cricoid cartilage
  56. two small cartilages in the larynx that are attached to the vocal folds, enabling the vocal folds to be drawn apart or together
  57. the glottal state in which the vocal folds are adjusted so that the front portions are pulled close together while the back portions are apart
  58. the glottal state that produces voiced sounds with the vocal folds relaxed enough to allow enough air to escape on to produce a simultaneous whispery effect
    murmur(breathy voice)
  59. vowels that do not show a noticeable change in quality during their production(e.g. the vowels sounds cab and get)
    simple vowels(monophthongs)
  60. a dorsal feature that characterizes sounds produced with the tongue body raised
  61. a dorsal feature that characterizes vowels made with the tongue body distinctly lowered from a central position in the oral cavity
  62. a vowel that is made with tongue positioned in the back of the oral cavity(e.g. the vowel sounds in hoot and board)
    back vowel
  63. a vowel that is made with the tongue positioned in the front of the oral cavity(e.g. the vowel sounds in seal and bat)
    front vowel
  64. a dorsal feature that captures the tense-lax distinction among vowels
  65. a vowel that is made with a placement of the tongue that results in relatively less vocal constriction(e.g. the vowel sounds in hit and but)
    lax vowel
  66. the lax vowel that is characterized by briefer duration than any of the other vowels(e.g. the underlined vowels in Canada,suppose)
    schwa(reduced vowel)
  67. one sound influencing the articulation of the other in a sequence of phonetic segments (e.g. in the sequence[pl], the tongue tip will start to move towards the alveolar ridge before the lips separate more than one articulate is active
  68. articulatory adjustments that occur during the production of connected speech
  69. the influence of one segment on another resulting in a sound becoming more like a nearby sound in terms of one or more of its phonetic characteristics (e.g. in english vowels become nasal if followed by a nasal consonant)
  70. assimilation in which a sound influences a preceding segment(e.g. nasalization in english)
    regressive assimilation
  71. assimilation in which sound influence the following segment(e.g. liquid-glide devoicing in english)
    progressive assimilation
  72. a process that reduces a full vowel typically unstressed to a schwa
    voicing assimilation
  73. voicing assimilation in which a sound becomes voiceless because of a nearby voiceless sound(e.g. the l in place is devoiced because of the voiceless stop preceding it)
  74. an assimilation process in which a dental or aveolar stop changes to a flap in the environment of other continuants
  75. a process whereby one segment becomes less like another segment in its environment
  76. a process that removes a segment from certain phonetic contexts(e.g. the pronunciation of fifths as fifs)
  77. a proces that inserts a segment into a particular environment(e.g. the insertion of a schwa in the pronunciation of athlete)
  78. a process that recorders a sequence of segments
  79. a process that reduces a full vowel typically unstressed to a schwa
    vowel reduction