micro ch 5
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first bacteria that came into being about 3.5 billion years ago
eukaryotes are typed by..
- protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals
- larger cels, with nuclei and complex internal structures
photosynthetic bacteria that used their chlorophyll pigments in process of photosynthesis
bacteria are generally what 3 major forms:
- Bacilli (rod-like)
- Cocci (spherical)
- spirochetes (if rigid) / spirilla (if flexible)
two cocci in a group
streptococci are ...
cocci in a chain
cocci in groups of 4 or 8
cocci occur in random clusters is called ...
staphylococcus (looks like grapes)
which of the cocci configurations would cause gonorrhea?
which cocci configuration causes "strep throat"
all bacteria are encased in a ..?
the cell wall contains?
polysaccharide and protein
protein in cell wall called?
what gives the rigidity and strength to the cell wall and is found in no other living things
what is the site of the bacterium's vulnerability to certain antibiotics and give one example of that antibiotic?
- the cell wall;
- and penicillin and its relative
the antibiotics that's effective toward gram negative bacteria and explain how their prevention?
- penicillium and such;
- prevents the bacterium from synthesizing peptidoglycan and leave microbe with only cell membrane. interncal pressure will cause the cell to swell and burst
structure of bacterial cell membrane (aka plasma membrane)
-double layer of phospholipids wiht protein molecules suspended in phospholipids at the surface and spanning the layers
some of the protein, in the phospholipids, that functions as enzymes during chemical reactions...their everchanging nature gave them this name
the gap between cell wall and cell membrane of a gram negative bacteria and the material in that gap is call?
- gap: periplasmic space
- material: periplasm
explain the importance of the periplasmic space
- are that is active and important process center;
- such as organic nutrients too large to pass thru membrane often broke down in this area; OR peptidoglycan synthesis occurs here; OR membrane constituents are placed in the correct slots here
the coating outside the cell wall
a capsule that's tightly bound to the cell, or a slime layer if slimy and flowing
function of glycocalyx
attachment, protection, motility
cytoplasmic area where the bacterial chromosome concentrates is called
tiny loops of DNA called, and what their function is
- -have genes that encode proteins for nonessential cell functions
- -replicated independently of chromosome, can be isolated, opened, and modified with new genes
nescessary structures of the bacteria's cytoplasm
ribosomes, variety of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides
- consist of RNA and protein,
- -transfer RNA molecules and a host of orgaic substances that make up the body of the cell
certain bacteria have the ability to produce THIS type of extraordinarily resistant structure; also give two examples that have this structure
- Endospore (aka spore)
- examples: Bacillus and Clostridium
what does a spore consist of?
contains a chromosome, two cell membranes, a cortex, a spore coat, and a surrounding wall called exosporium
surrounding wall of a spore is called?
ability to form spores is a key to certain types of...
process that reults in a colony (or clone) of genetically identical cells
culture medium (or media, sing)
a water solution of various nutrients that encourage the growth of a particular species of microorganism; normally have source of energy
culture in a liquid called?
culture in soild form?
encourage growth of one species while discouraging growth of another
special nutrients are added in the nutrient agar for cultivation
archaea have their own domain because...
extremely harsh environemnts which species live
examples of organisms in extreme environments
extremophiles, thermoacidophiles, methanogens, extreme halophiles
organisms live under extremely acidic and extremely hot conditions
live solely on carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water; produce methane under oxygen-free conditions
live in high-salt environments
cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria contain
chlorophyll pigments, different colors dur to various forms of pigments, use sulfur bacteria extensively in chemical reactions
photosynthetic bacteria are groups, in terms of sulfur
- green sulfur bacteria
- pruple sulfur bacteria,
- purple nonsulfur
photosynthesizers because they synthesize own food
microbes that use preformed organic matter for food
cyanobacteria have what kinds of pigments?
green chlorophyll pigments,
cyanobacteria take up nitrogen from atmosphere and use to synthesize ammonia and other nitrogen-containing substances
some species of cyanobacteria carry this out; cyanobacteria take up nitrogen from atmosphere and use it to synthesize ammonia and other nitrogen-containing substances, which plants can incorporate into organic compounds when bacteria die
process of nitrogen fixation occurs within
specialized cyanobacterial cells
mutually beneficial relationship
most bacteria are
heterotrophic eubacteria key players to..
- -nitrogen, sulfur, iron, phosphorus, and other nutrients
- -many are decomposers/ producers
this genera are among the few organisms that trap nitrogen from atmospherea nd synthesize useful organic compounds
Azotobacter and Rhizobium
importance of E. coli
- -strains of it live in human intestine and help new borns digest milk by breaking down its lactose
- -produces many industrial enzymes, vitamins, and amino acids
importance of Lactobacillus
- live in femaile genital tract and help guard against infection by other microbes
- -used large-scale manufacturing of cheese, sour crea, yogurt, and other fermented milk products
flexible cells and flagella at ends of spiral
rigid cells and long flagella inserted beneath the outer membrane of cell wall
- "radiating" "fungus"
- -bacterias that are long, chainlike branching forms, with each chains operating independently
- -form very resistant spores at tips of their filaments
Beggiatoa and Thiothrix
two imoprtant genera of gliding bacteria, that live in sulfur-rich muds and break down foul-smelling hydrogen sulfide, release sulfur which can used by other organisms
- antoher gliding bacteria
- -have a developmental cycle involve formation of reproductive structures called fruiting bodies
- -nutrients depleting, they congregate and interact with one another, evenutally producing a stalk with mass of cells at top
- -cells differentiate to sporelike bodies that are highly resistant to environmental stresses, allowing them to survive
group of rod-shaped bacteria that prey on other bacteria
a group of gram-negative bacterial rods that live in oxygen-free environments
a group of bacteria that derive their energy from chemical reactions and use simple carbon compounds and inorganic material to synthesize larger molecules
- aka mycobacteria
- -rod shaped bacteria have large amts of mycolic acid in cell walls, making them difficult to stain
many mycobacteria are ...two important ones are...
many are free-living; M. tuberculosis (cause tuberculosis) and M. leprae(causes leprosy)
submicroscopic bacterias are...
only bacteria that lack cell wall and smallest known bacteria
agents of human disease
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