micro ch 5

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wvuong
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61089
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micro ch 5
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2011-01-21 04:05:27
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exam 1
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  1. first bacteria that came into being about 3.5 billion years ago
    • Prokaryote
  2. eukaryotes are typed by..
    • protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals
    • larger cels, with nuclei and complex internal structures
  3. cyanobacteria
    photosynthetic bacteria that used their chlorophyll pigments in process of photosynthesis
  4. bacteria are generally what 3 major forms:
    • Bacilli (rod-like)
    • Cocci (spherical)
    • spirochetes (if rigid) / spirilla (if flexible)
  5. diplococci are...
    two cocci in a group
  6. streptococci are ...
    cocci in a chain
  7. tetrads are
    cocci in groups of 4 or 8
  8. cocci occur in random clusters is called ...
    staphylococcus (looks like grapes)
  9. which of the cocci configurations would cause gonorrhea?
    diplococcus
  10. which cocci configuration causes "strep throat"
    streptococcus
  11. all bacteria are encased in a ..?
    cell wall
  12. the cell wall contains?
    polysaccharide and protein
  13. protein in cell wall called?
    peptidoglycan
  14. what gives the rigidity and strength to the cell wall and is found in no other living things
    peptidoglycan
  15. what is the site of the bacterium's vulnerability to certain antibiotics and give one example of that antibiotic?
    • the cell wall;
    • and penicillin and its relative
  16. the antibiotics that's effective toward gram negative bacteria and explain how their prevention?
    • penicillium and such;
    • prevents the bacterium from synthesizing peptidoglycan and leave microbe with only cell membrane. interncal pressure will cause the cell to swell and burst
  17. structure of bacterial cell membrane (aka plasma membrane)
    -double layer of phospholipids wiht protein molecules suspended in phospholipids at the surface and spanning the layers
  18. some of the protein, in the phospholipids, that functions as enzymes during chemical reactions...their everchanging nature gave them this name
    fluid mosaic
  19. the gap between cell wall and cell membrane of a gram negative bacteria and the material in that gap is call?
    • gap: periplasmic space
    • material: periplasm
  20. explain the importance of the periplasmic space
    • are that is active and important process center;
    • such as organic nutrients too large to pass thru membrane often broke down in this area; OR peptidoglycan synthesis occurs here; OR membrane constituents are placed in the correct slots here
  21. the coating outside the cell wall
    glycocalyx
  22. a capsule that's tightly bound to the cell, or a slime layer if slimy and flowing
    glycocalyx
  23. function of glycocalyx
    attachment, protection, motility
  24. cytoplasmic area where the bacterial chromosome concentrates is called
    nucleoid
  25. tiny loops of DNA called, and what their function is
    • Plasmids,
    • -have genes that encode proteins for nonessential cell functions
    • -replicated independently of chromosome, can be isolated, opened, and modified with new genes
  26. nescessary structures of the bacteria's cytoplasm
    ribosomes, variety of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides
  27. ribosomes' function
    • consist of RNA and protein,
    • -transfer RNA molecules and a host of orgaic substances that make up the body of the cell
  28. certain bacteria have the ability to produce THIS type of extraordinarily resistant structure; also give two examples that have this structure
    • Endospore (aka spore)
    • examples: Bacillus and Clostridium
  29. what does a spore consist of?
    contains a chromosome, two cell membranes, a cortex, a spore coat, and a surrounding wall called exosporium
  30. surrounding wall of a spore is called?
    exosporium
  31. ability to form spores is a key to certain types of...
    bioterrorism
  32. binary fission
    process that reults in a colony (or clone) of genetically identical cells
  33. culture medium (or media, sing)
    a water solution of various nutrients that encourage the growth of a particular species of microorganism; normally have source of energy
  34. culture in a liquid called?
    broth
  35. culture in soild form?
    agar
  36. selective medium
    encourage growth of one species while discouraging growth of another
  37. enriched medium
    special nutrients are added in the nutrient agar for cultivation
  38. archaea have their own domain because...
    extremely harsh environemnts which species live
  39. examples of organisms in extreme environments
    extremophiles, thermoacidophiles, methanogens, extreme halophiles
  40. thermoacidophiles
    organisms live under extremely acidic and extremely hot conditions
  41. methanogens
    live solely on carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water; produce methane under oxygen-free conditions
  42. extreme halophiles
    live in high-salt environments
  43. cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria contain
    chlorophyll pigments, different colors dur to various forms of pigments, use sulfur bacteria extensively in chemical reactions
  44. photosynthetic bacteria are groups, in terms of sulfur
    • green sulfur bacteria
    • pruple sulfur bacteria,
    • purple nonsulfur
  45. autotropic microbes
    photosynthesizers because they synthesize own food
  46. heterothrophic microbes
    microbes that use preformed organic matter for food
  47. cyanobacteria have what kinds of pigments?
    green chlorophyll pigments,
  48. nitrogen fixation
    cyanobacteria take up nitrogen from atmosphere and use to synthesize ammonia and other nitrogen-containing substances



    some species of cyanobacteria carry this out; cyanobacteria take up nitrogen from atmosphere and use it to synthesize ammonia and other nitrogen-containing substances, which plants can incorporate into organic compounds when bacteria die
  49. process of nitrogen fixation occurs within
    heterocysts
  50. heterocysts are?
    specialized cyanobacterial cells
  51. symbiosis
    mutually beneficial relationship
  52. most bacteria are
    heterotrophic eubacteria
  53. heterotrophic eubacteria key players to..
    • -nitrogen, sulfur, iron, phosphorus, and other nutrients
    • -many are decomposers/ producers
  54. this genera are among the few organisms that trap nitrogen from atmospherea nd synthesize useful organic compounds
    Azotobacter and Rhizobium
  55. importance of E. coli
    • -strains of it live in human intestine and help new borns digest milk by breaking down its lactose
    • -produces many industrial enzymes, vitamins, and amino acids
  56. importance of Lactobacillus
    • live in femaile genital tract and help guard against infection by other microbes
    • -used large-scale manufacturing of cheese, sour crea, yogurt, and other fermented milk products
  57. Spirila have....
    flexible cells and flagella at ends of spiral
  58. Spirochetes have...
    rigid cells and long flagella inserted beneath the outer membrane of cell wall
  59. actinomycetes
    • "radiating" "fungus"
    • -bacterias that are long, chainlike branching forms, with each chains operating independently
    • -form very resistant spores at tips of their filaments
  60. Beggiatoa and Thiothrix
    two imoprtant genera of gliding bacteria, that live in sulfur-rich muds and break down foul-smelling hydrogen sulfide, release sulfur which can used by other organisms
  61. myxobacteria
    • antoher gliding bacteria
    • -have a developmental cycle involve formation of reproductive structures called fruiting bodies
    • -nutrients depleting, they congregate and interact with one another, evenutally producing a stalk with mass of cells at top
    • -cells differentiate to sporelike bodies that are highly resistant to environmental stresses, allowing them to survive
  62. bdellovibrios
    group of rod-shaped bacteria that prey on other bacteria
  63. bacteroides
    a group of gram-negative bacterial rods that live in oxygen-free environments
  64. chemolithotrophic bacteria
    a group of bacteria that derive their energy from chemical reactions and use simple carbon compounds and inorganic material to synthesize larger molecules
  65. acid-fast bacteria
    • aka mycobacteria
    • -rod shaped bacteria have large amts of mycolic acid in cell walls, making them difficult to stain
    • -acid-resistant!
  66. many mycobacteria are ...two important ones are...
    many are free-living; M. tuberculosis (cause tuberculosis) and M. leprae(causes leprosy)
  67. submicroscopic bacterias are...
    • rickettsiae,
    • chlamydiae,
    • mycoplasmas
  68. mycoplasms
    only bacteria that lack cell wall and smallest known bacteria
  69. bacterial pathogens
    agents of human disease

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