Introduction to Pharmacology: Concepts & Connections
When & where was pharmacology recognized as a distinct discipline?
Department of Pharmacology was established in Estonia in 1847.
Where & who (considered the father of American pharma) founded the first US department of pharmacology?
John Jacob Abel founded the 1st pharma dept in US @ the University of Michigan in 1890.
What is the central purpose of Pharmacology?
Focused on the pt and improving the quality of life.
Any substance that is taken to prevent, cure, or reduce symptoms of a medical condition.
The study of medicines.
Pharmacotherapy or Pharmacotherapeutics?
Is the application of drugs for the purpose of disease prevention & tx of suffering.
What factors may elicit diff responses when taking drugs?
A pts age, race, gender, body mass, health status & genetics.
What is a goal of Pharmacotherapy?
To select the perfect or ideal drug for the pt.
The condition for which a drug is approved.
Unlabeled or Off-Label Indications?
Drugs that are used for conditions for which they have not been approved.
Describes what is being treated by the drug.
Describes how the drug acts.
What is a key factor in placing a particular drug in a Therapeutic Classification?
Is to simply state what condition is being treated.
What prefix is often used in Therapeutic Classifications?
What does a Pharmacologic Classification address?
A drugs mechanism of action or how a drug produces its effect in the body.
Is the agent to which all other drugs in a class are compared.
What is an advantage of learning a Prototype Drug in depth?
The actions & adverse effects of other drugs in the same class may be predicted.
What are the 3 basic types of drug names?
Chemical, Generic, & Trade Names.
Are assigned using standard nomenclature established by the International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), has only 1 chemical name, which is sometimes helpful in predicting a drug's physical & chemical properties.
Assigned by the US Adopted Name Council, GN are less complicated & easier to remember than CN, many orgs, including FDA, US Pharmacopeia, & WHO routinely describe meds by GN, HCP's often use, & students MUST memorize.
Trade Names, sometimes called proprietary, product, or brand name?
Assigned by the pharmaceutical company marketing the drug.
A period of time, granted by the FDA, to a pharmaceutical company giving them exclusive rights to name & market a drug for a certain amt of yrs (typically lasting 5 yrs) after it approves a new drug application. During this time competing companies are not allowed to market generic versions of the product.
Drugs w/more than one active generic ingredient.
Are there differences between brand name & generic equivalent?
The answer is unclear.
What is the key to comparing brand name & generic equivalents?
Defined by the Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act as the rate & extent to which the active ingredient is absorbed from a drug product & becomes available @ the site of drug action to produce its effect.
What are some factors that can affect Bioavailability?
Inert ingredients & tablet compression
Trade & generic products have the same rate of absorption & onset therapeutic action.
What is a general rule of bioavailability?
Bioavailability is of most concern when using critical care drugs & those with a narrow safety margin.
Before administering a drug to a pt a nurse must obtain and process:
Pertinent info regarding a pt's medical hx, physical assessment, disease processes, & learning needs & capabilities.