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The science of food; the nutrients and the substances therein.
A waxy lipid found in all body cells; It has a structure containing multiple chemical rings (steroid structure). It is found only in foods that contain animal products.
A compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; most are know as sugars, starches, and fibers. Supplies 4 kcal/gram.
Food and body components made of amino acids; contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes other atoms, in a specific configuration. Contains the form of nitrogen most easily used by the body. Supplies 4 kcal/gram.
A compound composed of much carbon and hydrogen, little oxygen, and sometimes other elements. Dissolves in either benzene, but not in water, and include fats, oils and cholesterol.
Elements used in the body to promote chemical reactions and to form body structures.
The universal solvent of life.
Define: Kilocalorie (kcal)
The heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1000 grams of water by 1 degree Celsius; Also written as a Calories with a capital C.
A nutrient needed in gram quantities in the diet. Fat, protein, and carbohydrates.
- Chemical Name/Provides- Starches, Sugars,
- Purpose- Energy for movement, CO2/ATP
- Food Source- Grains, Cereals, Starchy Vegetables, Milks (&Yogurt), Legumes, Fruit.
- Chemical Name/ Provides- Amino acid, Peptide
- Purpose- Energy for tissue development, structure, Hormones, Signaling Molecules, Osmolarity in blood
- Food Source- Meats, Fish, Dairy (Cheeses & Milk), Legumes (Nuts & Seeds)
- Chemical Name/ Provides- Triglycerides, Cholesterol, Phospholipids
- Purpose- Energy for storage, Cell signaling, Hormones
- Food Source- Fats and Oils, Nuts and Seeds, whole milks and cheeses, fatty meats and fish, avocado.
What is the difference between fats and oils?
- Fats are solid at room temperature (like margarine, fake butter)
- Oils are liquid at room temperature (Like canola oil)
What is the difference between saturated, unsaturated, and trans fats?
- -Saturated Fats- Contains no double bonds. A fat consisting of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acid.
- -Unsaturated Fats- A fatty acid that consists of one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain.
- -Trans Fat- An unsaturated fatty acid formed by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oil, believed to raise blood cholesterol levels.
Be able to determine kcal and percentages from each macronutrient in a food or diet.
- Fat: 15 g x 9 Kcal/gram= 135 kcal
- Carbohydrate: 33 g x 4 kcal/gram= 132 kcal
- Protein: 12 g x 4 kcal/gram= 48 kcal
Total Calories: 135 + 132 + 48 = 315
What are the three major categories of nutritional science?
- -Animal Studies
- -Cell Culture
Define the three major categories of nutritional science?
- A) Epidemiology:
- --Purpose- Show relationships between populations and disease RISK
- --Evidence- Correlation, not causation.
- B) Animal Studies:
- --Purpose- Provides preliminary data for human and cell culture studies.
- --Evidence- Direct relationship, but still not causation.
- C) Cell Culture:
- --Purpose- Provide preliminary data for human and animal studies
- --Evidence- Direct relationship, causation.
What are the 10 red flags of “Junk” science?
- -Recommendation that promise a quick fix
- -Dire warnings of danger from a single product or regimen
- -Claims that sound too good to be true
- -Simplistic conclusions drawn from a single study
- -Recommendations based on a single study
- -Dramatic statements that are refuted by reputable scientific organizations
- -Lists of “good” and “bad” foods
- -Recommendations based on studies published without peer review
- -Recommendations from studies that ignore differences among individuals or groups.
Understand the role of genetic background in the development of nutrition-related diseases.
- -Your DNA contains hereditary information
- -Gene products of DNA direct growth, maintenance and development
- -Genes, environment determine expression of traits
- -Genes, environment impact disease