Nutrition 2360

Card Set Information

Nutrition 2360
2010-02-09 15:10:28
Chapter 1 Objectives

Science of Nutrition
Show Answers:

  1. Define: Nutrition
    The science of food; the nutrients and the substances therein.
  2. Define: Cholesterol
    A waxy lipid found in all body cells; It has a structure containing multiple chemical rings (steroid structure). It is found only in foods that contain animal products.
  3. Define: Carbohydrate
    A compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; most are know as sugars, starches, and fibers. Supplies 4 kcal/gram.
  4. Define: Proteins
    Food and body components made of amino acids; contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes other atoms, in a specific configuration. Contains the form of nitrogen most easily used by the body. Supplies 4 kcal/gram.
  5. Define: Lipids
    A compound composed of much carbon and hydrogen, little oxygen, and sometimes other elements. Dissolves in either benzene, but not in water, and include fats, oils and cholesterol.
  6. Define: Vitamins
  7. Define: Minerals
    Elements used in the body to promote chemical reactions and to form body structures.
  8. Define: Water
    The universal solvent of life.
  9. Define: Kilocalorie (kcal)
    The heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1000 grams of water by 1 degree Celsius; Also written as a Calories with a capital C.
  10. Define: Macronutrient
    A nutrient needed in gram quantities in the diet. Fat, protein, and carbohydrates.
  11. Carbohydrates...
    • Chemical Name/Provides- Starches, Sugars,
    • Purpose- Energy for movement, CO2/ATP
    • Food Source- Grains, Cereals, Starchy Vegetables, Milks (&Yogurt), Legumes, Fruit.
  12. Proteins...
    • Chemical Name/ Provides- Amino acid, Peptide
    • Purpose- Energy for tissue development, structure, Hormones, Signaling Molecules, Osmolarity in blood
    • Food Source- Meats, Fish, Dairy (Cheeses & Milk), Legumes (Nuts & Seeds)
  13. Lipids (fats)...
    • Chemical Name/ Provides- Triglycerides, Cholesterol, Phospholipids
    • Purpose- Energy for storage, Cell signaling, Hormones
    • Food Source- Fats and Oils, Nuts and Seeds, whole milks and cheeses, fatty meats and fish, avocado.
  14. What is the difference between fats and oils?
    • Fats are solid at room temperature (like margarine, fake butter)
    • Oils are liquid at room temperature (Like canola oil)
  15. What is the difference between saturated, unsaturated, and trans fats?
    • -Saturated Fats- Contains no double bonds. A fat consisting of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acid.
    • -Unsaturated Fats- A fatty acid that consists of one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain.
    • -Trans Fat- An unsaturated fatty acid formed by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oil, believed to raise blood cholesterol levels.
  16. Be able to determine kcal and percentages from each macronutrient in a food or diet.
    An example...?
    • Fat: 15 g x 9 Kcal/gram= 135 kcal
    • Carbohydrate: 33 g x 4 kcal/gram= 132 kcal
    • Protein: 12 g x 4 kcal/gram= 48 kcal

    Total Calories: 135 + 132 + 48 = 315
  17. What are the three major categories of nutritional science?
    • -Epidemiology
    • -Animal Studies
    • -Cell Culture
  18. Define the three major categories of nutritional science?
    • A) Epidemiology:
    • --Purpose- Show relationships between populations and disease RISK
    • --Evidence- Correlation, not causation.
    • B) Animal Studies:
    • --Purpose- Provides preliminary data for human and cell culture studies.
    • --Evidence- Direct relationship, but still not causation.
    • C) Cell Culture:
    • --Purpose- Provide preliminary data for human and animal studies
    • --Evidence- Direct relationship, causation.
  19. What are the 10 red flags of “Junk” science?
    • -Recommendation that promise a quick fix
    • -Dire warnings of danger from a single product or regimen
    • -Claims that sound too good to be true
    • -Simplistic conclusions drawn from a single study
    • -Recommendations based on a single study
    • -Dramatic statements that are refuted by reputable scientific organizations
    • -Lists of “good” and “bad” foods
    • -Recommendations based on studies published without peer review
    • -Recommendations from studies that ignore differences among individuals or groups.
  20. Understand the role of genetic background in the development of nutrition-related diseases.
    • -Your DNA contains hereditary information
    • -Gene products of DNA direct growth, maintenance and development
    • -Genes, environment determine expression of traits
    • -Genes, environment impact disease