Ch 1

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Ch 1
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2011-01-21 22:31:55
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  1. the compound that forms the common entry point into the Krebs cycle for the oxidation of carbohydrate and fat
    acetyl coenzyme A
  2. a high-energy phosphate compound from which ATP is formed
    adenosine diphosphate ADP
  3. a cemical compound that serves as a neurotransmitter throughout the body. also called epinephrine.
    adrenaline
  4. a process occurring in the mitochondria that uses oxygen to produce energy (ATP). Also known as cellular respiration.
    aerobic metabolism
  5. a mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that prevents dehyhdration by promoting renal absorption of sodium
    aldosterone
  6. the production of energy (ATP) in the absence of oxygen
    anaerobic metabolism
  7. an enzyme that converts angiontensin I to angiotensin II
    angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
  8. a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that regulates fluid and electrolyte balance in the blood by reducing urine production.
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  9. the short-term anaerobic energy system that maintains ATP levels. breakdown of phosphocreatine (PCr) frees P1 which then combines with ADP to form ATP.
    ATP-PCr system
  10. the first step in fatty acid oxidation, in which fatty acids are broken into separate two-carbon units of acetic acid, each of which is then converted to acetyl coA
    B oxidation
  11. term given to the study of metabolic processes that yield or consume energy
    bioenergetics
  12. an organic compound formed from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, and cellulose.
    carbohydrate
  13. the tearing down of body tisue; the destructive phase of metabolism
    catabolism
  14. biologically active amines (organic compounds derived from ammonia), such as epinephrine & norepinephrine,that have powerful effects similar to those of the sympathetic nervous system
    catecholamines
  15. a corticosteroid hormone released from the adrenal cortex that stimulates gluconeogenesis, increases mobilization of free fatty acids, decreases use of glucose & stimulates catabolism of protein. Also known as hydrocortisone.
    cortisol
  16. intracellular second messenger that mediates hormone action
    cyclic adenosine monophosphate cAMP
  17. the method of action of steroid hormones. they bind to receptors in the cell, & then the hormone-receptor complex enters the nucleus and activates certain genes.
    direct gene activation
  18. decreased cellular sensitivity to hormone, likely the result of a decreased number of cell receptors available to bind with the hormone
    downregulation
  19. a series of chemical reactions that convert the hydrogen ion generated by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle into water and produce energy for oxidative phosphorylation
    electron transport chain
  20. a catecholamine released from the adrenal medulla that, along with norepinephrine, prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response. it is also a neurotransmitter.
    epinephrine
  21. the hormone that stimulates erythrocyte (Red blood cell) production
    erythropoietin (EPO)
  22. the components of fat that are used by the body for metabolism
    free fatty acids (FFA)
  23. a hormone released by the pancreas that promotes increased breakdown of liver glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis) & increased gluconeogenesis
    glucagon
  24. a family of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that help maintain homeostasis through a variety of effects throughout the body
    glucocorticoids
  25. the conversion of protein or fat into glucose
    gluconeogenesis
  26. six carbon sugar that is the primary form of carbohydrate used for metabolism
    glucose
  27. the form of carbohydrate stored in the body, found predominantly in the muscles & liver
    glycogen
  28. the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
    glycogenolysis
  29. the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid
    glycolysis
  30. an anabolic agent that stimulates fat metabolism & promotes muscle growth & hypertrophy by facilitating amino acid transport into the cells
    growth hormone
  31. a relative (not absolute) increase in the cellular content per unit of blood volume, resulting fromn a reduction in plasma volume
    hemoconcentration
  32. an increase in blood plasma, resulting in a dilution of the blood's cellular contents
    hemodilution
  33. a chemical substance produced or released by an endocrine gland & transported by the blood to a specific target tissue
    hormone
  34. an elevated blood glucose level
    hyperglycemia
  35. a low blood glucose level
    hypoglycemia
  36. hormones transmitted from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary that inhibit release of some other hormones
    inhibiting factors
  37. a hormone produced by the B-cells in the pancreas that assists entry into cells
    insulin
  38. the equivalent of 1000 calories
    kilocalories (kcal)
  39. a series of chemical reactions that involve the complete oxidtion of acetyl CoA & produce 2 mol of ATP (energy) along with hydrogen & carbon, which combine with oxygen to form H2O and CO2
    Krebs Cycle
  40. the process of convertinf protein into fatty acids
    lipogenesis
  41. the process of breaking down triglyceride to its basic unis to be used for energy
    lipolysis
  42. all energy-producing and energy-using processes within the body
    metabolism
  43. steroid hormones released from the adrenal cortex that are responsible for electrolyte balance within the body, for example aldosterone
    mineralocorticoids
  44. the primary mechanism through which the endocrine system maintains homeostasis. some body change upsets homeostasis, which triggers release of a hormone to correct the change. once that correction is accomplished, the hormone is no longer needed, so its secretion decreases
    negative feedback system
  45. hormones derived from protein, peptides, or amino acids that cannot easily cross cell membranes
    nonsteroid hormones
  46. a catecholamine released from the adrenal medulla that, along with epinhephrine, prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response. It is also a neurotransmitter.
    norepinephrine
  47. the number of solutes (such as electrolytes) dissolved in a fluid divided by the weight o tht fluid; usually expressed in units of osmols (miliosmols) per kg.
    osmolality
  48. the body's most complex energy system, which generates energy by disassembling fuels with the aid of oxygen & has a very high energy yield.
    oxidative system
  49. an energy-rich compound that plays a critical role in providing energy for muscle action by maintaining ATP concentration
    phosphocreatine (PCr)
  50. substances derived from a fatty acid that act as hormones at the local level
    prostaglandins
  51. hormones transmitted from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary that promote release of some other hormones
    releasing factors
  52. an enzyme formed by the kidneys to convert a plasma protein called angiotensinogen into angiotensin II
    renin
  53. the mechanism involved in renal control of blood pressure. the kidneys respond to decreased blood presure or blood flow by forming renin, which converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, which is finally converted to angiotensin ii. Angiotensin II constricts arterioles & triggers aldosterone release
    renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism
  54. a substance inside a cell that acts as a messenger after a nonsteroid hormone binds to receptors outside the cell
    second messenger
  55. hormones with chemical structures similar to c holesterol that are lipid soluble & that diffuse through cell membranes
    steroid hormones
  56. basic fuel source, such as carbohydrates, proteins, & fats
    substrate
  57. cells that possess specific hormone receptors
    target cells
  58. a hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes the release of thyroid hormones
    thyrotropin (TSH)
  59. a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases that rate of cellular metabolism & the rate & contractility of the heart
    thyroxine (T4)
  60. the body's most concentrated energy source & the form in which most fats are stored in the body
    triglycerides
  61. a hormone released by the thyroid gland that increases the rate of cellular metabolism and the rate and contractility of the heart
    triiodothyronine (T3)
  62. an increased cellular sensitivity to a hormone, often caused by increased hormone receptors
    upregulation

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