Pharmacology

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Author:
sthomp88
ID:
61192
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-01-21 23:02:47
Tags:
chapter one classification regulation
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week one
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  1. What are the 3 different names that drugs collect as they pass through the phases of drug trials before they are approved and sold?
    • chemical name
    • generic or "official" name
    • trade or brand name "proprietary" name
  2. first name of a drug that is a description of the chemical composition and molecular structure (N-acetyl-P-aminophenol)
    chemical name
  3. second name of a drug that is a shorter name derived from the chemical name (e.g. acetaminophen)
    generic or "official" name
  4. third name of a drug that is the name a manufacturer copyrights and gives to its approved drug product (tylenol)
    brand name or "proprietary" name
  5. How long does the patent for exclusive manufacture and marketing of a drug last for?
    approximately 17 years (of protection)
  6. What are 2 examples of the same drug but have different names with different dose forms that they come in?
    • ibuprofen
    • lidocaine
  7. before the FDA approves a drug, the generic name is assigned by the manufacturer with the approval of the _____ _____ ______ _______ _______
    United States Adopted Name council
  8. All drugs have one ______ name, but they can have numerous _______ names.
    • generic
    • brand
  9. How do you avoid confusion between the generic name and brand name of a drug?
    the generic name is lower case and the BRAND name is capitalized
  10. a drug can be a perscriptiion, or ______ drug
    legend
  11. means a drug can be secured with a prescription or a drug can be a nonprescription drug and sold over the counter
    Prescription (legend)
  12. when multriple drugs are included into a single dose form
    combination product
  13. How are perscriptions drugs that were normally perscription only drugs sold over the counter?
    in low doses considered safe for consumer purchase
  14. Each year a list of the top ________ drugs perscribed the previous year is published, this list can be found on the internet
    200
  15. true or false. there are some exceptions, but most generic drug formulations are considered to be thera peutically equivalent to the brand name product
    true
  16. The ________ requires that the active ingredient of the generic product achieve the same therapeutic blood level as the brand-name product
    FDA
  17. when two formulations of a drug meet the same chemical and physical standards required by the FDA, they are described as what?
    chemically equivalent
  18. products that produce similar concentrations of the drug in the blood and tissues are what?
    biologically equivalent
  19. if clinical trials show the generic drug to have an equal therapeutic effect, it is described as what?
    therapeutically equivalent
  20. Only drugs that are ____________ equivalent can be marketed
    biologically
  21. Why are biologic and therapeutic equivalence the same?
    because the amount of a drug in the blood or tissue is a requirement for a therapeutic effect
  22. What are the 3 ways that drugs are classified as?
    • their intended use or indication
    • effect produced in the body
    • chemical categories
  23. What is another example of a classification for individual drugs besides the 3 main ones?
    FDA pregnancy safe category
  24. What does the FDA pregnancy safety category indicate?
    that documented problems have occurred in animals or humans when the drug is used during pregnancy
  25. an agency within the department of health and human services charged with the responsibility to approve drugs that have been shown to be safe and effective. They also test food products to ensure they are safe to consume
    FDA (food and drug administration)
  26. What agency decides which drugs are sold by prescription and which drugs can be sold OTC?
    FDA
  27. enforces federal consumer protection laws and regulates marketing practices and advertising on foods, nonprescription drugs, dietary supplements, and products promising health benefits.
    FTC (federal trade commission)
  28. an agency within the department of justice that administers the requirements outlined in the controlled substances act; which indentifies drugs capable of causing addiction and sets requirements for prescribing drugs with potential for abuse
    DEA (drug enforcement administration)
  29. What are the 5 steps/phases of how a drug becomes FDA approved?
    • preclinical trials
    • Phase I clinical trial
    • Phase II clinical trial
    • Phase III clinical trial
    • Postmarketing surveillance
  30. a new drug is tested in animals to prove its safety is what step for FDA approval?
    preclinical trials
  31. low doses of the drug are tested in a group of 20-80 healthy volunteers to study safety profiles and determine pharmacokinetic characteristics; is what step for FDA approval?
    phase I clinical trial
  32. controlled study involving 100 to 300 volunteers to assess the drug's effectiveness; is what step for FDA approval?
    phase II clinical trials
  33. controlled studies involving 1,000 to 3,000 volunteers to confirm the drug's safety and efficacy, and identify adverse drug effects; is what step for FDA approval?
    phase III clinical trials
  34. determine the true risk-benefit profile of the new drug; is what step in FDA approval?
    postmarketing surveillance

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