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the first to study virus and what got him interested?
- Dmitiri Iwanowski
- ==> tobacco mosaic disease
who brought in electron microscope?
Virus have what kind of shapes/structure?
viruses consist only of
a core of nucleic acid enclosed in a coat of protein; and possibly a membrane-like envelope that's enclosed with it
genome and what it consist of
the nucleic acid core of the virus and it consist ofeither DNA or RNA
outer protein coat of a virus
smaller protein units that are bound together chemically to form the capsid
combo of genome and capsid
viruses' envelope may have projections
attachment and assistance to penetrate into host cell
viruses' main function that they do INCREDIBLY well?
the stages of replication are...
- 1. attachment stage
- 2. uncoating stage
- 3. synthesis stage
- 4. assembly stage
what happens in the uncoating stage?
viral nucleic acid is released
what happens in assembly stage?
combination of viral parts synthesized are used to form new viral particles
process by which abacterial virus replicates within a host cell and ultimately destroys the host cell
defense mechanism against virus?
- activity of T-cells,
a drug that inhibits replication of herpes simplex and chickenpox viruses by interfering with the replication of their DNA
a drug to prevent attachment of influenza viruses to host cells in respiratory tract
drug used to treat AIDS to inhibit the key enzyme that functions during HIV's replication cycle
antiviral drug that helps protect neighboring cells against viral penetration
kinds viral vaccines
- -genetically engineered vaccine
viral genome is destroyed but capsids intact; they are unable to replicate in cells; most refer to as 'dead'
- contains viruses that infect cells and replicate but at an extremely low rate, so low that disease symptoms do not develop, obtained by cultivating till a low-replicating strain appears;
- -often known as "live"
- -carry a risk due to possibly infecting body cells
genetically engineered vaccine
- viral proteins are produced by yeast cells that have been altered to express the genes of a specific virus, proteins in return are concentrated, purified and used in vaccine
- -contain no viruses or viral fragments, so low side effects
vaccines can play key role in ...
lysogeny; aka lysogenic cycle
- a virus enters a host cell but does not replicate immediately
- -incorporates with cell's gene and replicate whenever gene replicate
viral DNA that has integrated itno eukarytoic host chromosome and is then passed on from one generation to the next thru cell division
provirus have all the proteins needed for...
viral cultivation...or types of cell culture
- -technology of viral cultivation
- -diploid fibroblast culture
- -continuous cell line culture
diploid fibroblast culture
consists of immature cells c alled fibroblasts, which derive from fetal tissues and retain the capacity for rapid and repeated cell division
- ultramicroscopic, single-stranded molecules of RNA without any protein coating
- -infect plants
- proteinaceous infectious particles thought to cause diseases
- -composed mostly of protein
- -survive heat, radiation, and chemical treatment
results from uncontrolled reproduction of cells thru process of mitosis
cells revert to an early stage in their development, often becoming formless cells that divide as rapidly as early embryonic cells