The mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information.
Explicit use of memory
Conscious effort to encode or recover information through memory processes.
Implicit uses of memory
Availability of information through memory processes without conscious effort to encode or recover information.
Memory for information such as facts and events.
Memory for how things get done; the way perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills are acquired, retained, and used.
The process by which a mental representation is formed in memory.
The retention of encoded material over time.
The recovery of stored information from memory.
Memory system in the visual domain that allows large amounts of information to be stored for very brief durations.
Short-term memory (STM)
Memory processes associated with preservation of recent experiences and with retrieval of information from long-term memory; short-term memory is of limited capacity and stores information for only a short length of time without rehearsal.
The process of taking single items of information and recoding them on the basis of similarity or some other organizing principle.
A memory resource that is used to accomplish tasks such as reasoning and language comprehension; consists of the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and central executive.
Long-term memory (LTM)
Memory processes associated with the preservation of information for retrieval at any later time.
Internally or externally generated stimulus available to help with the retrieval of a memory.
A method of retrieval in which an individual is required to reproduce the information previously presented.
A method of retrieval in which an individual is required to identify stimuli as having been experienced before.
Long-term memory for an autobiographical event and the context in which it occurred.
Generic, categorical memory, such as the meaning of words and concepts.
The principle that subsequent retrieval of information is enhanced if cues received at the time of recall are consistent with those presented at the time of encoding.
Serial position effect
A characteristic of memory retrieval in which the recall of beginning and end items on a list is often better than recall of items appearing in the middle.
Improved memory for items at the start of the list.
Improved memory for items at the end of a list.
The assumption that the serial position effect can be altered by the context and the distinctiveness of the experience being recalled.
A theory that suggests that the deeper the level at which information was processed, the more likely it is to be retained in memory.
The perspective that suggests that memory is best when the type of processing carried out at encoding matches the processes carried out at retrieval.
In the assessment of implicit memory, the advantage conferred by prior exposure to a word or situation.
Circumstances in which past memories make it more difficult to encode and retrieve new information.
Circumstances in which the formation of new memories makes it more difficult to recover older memories.
A technique for improving memory by enriching the encoding of information.
Strategy or device that uses familiar information during the encoding of new information to enhance subsequent access to the information in memory.
Implicit or explicit knowledge about memory abilities and effective memory strategies; cognition about memory.
Mental representation of a kind or category of items and ideas.
The level of categorization that can be retrieved from memory most quickly and used most efficiently
General conceptual framework, or cluster of knowledge, regarding objects, people, and situations; knowledge packaged that encodes generalizations about the structure of the environment.
The most representative example of a category.
Member of a category that people have encountered.
Re constructive memory
The process of putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of a specific memory representation.
People's vivid and richly detailed memory in response to personal or public events that have great emotional significance.
The physical memory trace for information in the brain.
A failure of memory caused by physical injury, disease, drug use, or psychological trauma.
An inability to form explicit memories for events that occur after the time of physical damage to the brain.
An inability to retrieve memories from the time before physical damage to the brain.