Psychology Chapter 7

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Psychology Chapter 7
2011-01-22 16:05:18
Psychology Chapter

Psychology vocabulary Chapter 7
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  1. Memory
    The mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information.
  2. Explicit use of memory
    Conscious effort to encode or recover information through memory processes.
  3. Implicit uses of memory
    Availability of information through memory processes without conscious effort to encode or recover information.
  4. Declarative memory
    Memory for information such as facts and events.
  5. Procedural memory
    Memory for how things get done; the way perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills are acquired, retained, and used.
  6. Encoding
    The process by which a mental representation is formed in memory.
  7. Storage
    The retention of encoded material over time.
  8. Retrieval
    The recovery of stored information from memory.
  9. Iconic memory
    Memory system in the visual domain that allows large amounts of information to be stored for very brief durations.
  10. Short-term memory (STM)
    Memory processes associated with preservation of recent experiences and with retrieval of information from long-term memory; short-term memory is of limited capacity and stores information for only a short length of time without rehearsal.
  11. Chunking
    The process of taking single items of information and recoding them on the basis of similarity or some other organizing principle.
  12. Working memory
    A memory resource that is used to accomplish tasks such as reasoning and language comprehension; consists of the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and central executive.
  13. Long-term memory (LTM)
    Memory processes associated with the preservation of information for retrieval at any later time.
  14. Retrieval cue
    Internally or externally generated stimulus available to help with the retrieval of a memory.
  15. Recall
    A method of retrieval in which an individual is required to reproduce the information previously presented.
  16. Recognition
    A method of retrieval in which an individual is required to identify stimuli as having been experienced before.
  17. Episodic memory
    Long-term memory for an autobiographical event and the context in which it occurred.
  18. Semantic memory
    Generic, categorical memory, such as the meaning of words and concepts.
  19. Encoding specificity
    The principle that subsequent retrieval of information is enhanced if cues received at the time of recall are consistent with those presented at the time of encoding.
  20. Serial position effect
    A characteristic of memory retrieval in which the recall of beginning and end items on a list is often better than recall of items appearing in the middle.
  21. Primacy effect
    Improved memory for items at the start of the list.
  22. Recency effect
    Improved memory for items at the end of a list.
  23. Contextual distinctiveness
    The assumption that the serial position effect can be altered by the context and the distinctiveness of the experience being recalled.
  24. Levels-of-processing theory
    A theory that suggests that the deeper the level at which information was processed, the more likely it is to be retained in memory.
  25. Transfer-appropriate processing
    The perspective that suggests that memory is best when the type of processing carried out at encoding matches the processes carried out at retrieval.
  26. Priming
    In the assessment of implicit memory, the advantage conferred by prior exposure to a word or situation.
  27. Proactive interference
    Circumstances in which past memories make it more difficult to encode and retrieve new information.
  28. Retroactive interference
    Circumstances in which the formation of new memories makes it more difficult to recover older memories.
  29. Elaborative rehearsal
    A technique for improving memory by enriching the encoding of information.
  30. Mnemonic
    Strategy or device that uses familiar information during the encoding of new information to enhance subsequent access to the information in memory.
  31. Metamemory
    Implicit or explicit knowledge about memory abilities and effective memory strategies; cognition about memory.
  32. Concept
    Mental representation of a kind or category of items and ideas.
  33. Basic level
    The level of categorization that can be retrieved from memory most quickly and used most efficiently
  34. Schema
    General conceptual framework, or cluster of knowledge, regarding objects, people, and situations; knowledge packaged that encodes generalizations about the structure of the environment.
  35. Prototype
    The most representative example of a category.
  36. Exemplar
    Member of a category that people have encountered.
  37. Re constructive memory
    The process of putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of a specific memory representation.
  38. Flashbulb memory
    People's vivid and richly detailed memory in response to personal or public events that have great emotional significance.
  39. Engram
    The physical memory trace for information in the brain.
  40. Amnesia
    A failure of memory caused by physical injury, disease, drug use, or psychological trauma.
  41. Anterograde amnesia
    An inability to form explicit memories for events that occur after the time of physical damage to the brain.
  42. Retrograde amnesia
    An inability to retrieve memories from the time before physical damage to the brain.