Chapter 2: Prefixes

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robinkat
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61259
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Chapter 2: Prefixes
Updated:
2011-01-22 09:42:03
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veterinary medical terminology
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examples of common medical prefixes
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  1. hyper-
    excessive or more than normal
  2. dyspnea
    difficult breathing
  3. apnea
    absence of breathing
  4. bradypnea
    slow breathing
  5. What are the categories of prefixes?
    numbers, measurements, position, direction, negatives, and color
  6. bi-
    • two, double
    • example: bicuspid (having 2 cusps or points).
  7. hemi-
    • half
    • example: hemiplegia (paralysis of one side [half] of the body)
  8. milli-
    • one-thousandth
    • ex: milliliter (one-thousandth of a liter)
  9. mono-
    • one, single
    • ex: monocyte (a white cell with a singular nucleus)
  10. nulli-
    • none
    • ex: nullipara (a woman who has borne no children)
  11. primi-
    • first
    • ex: primigravida (first pregnancy)
  12. quadri-
    • four
    • ex: quadriplegia (paralysis of all 4 extremities).
  13. semi-
    • half
    • ex: semiconscious (half conscious)
  14. tetra-
    • four
    • ex: tetraplegia (paralysis of both arms and both legs; also known as quadriplegia).
  15. tri-
    • three
    • ex: triceps (a muscle having 3 heads)
  16. uni-
    • one
    • ex: uninuclear (a cell having one nucleus)
  17. hyp-
    • under, below, beneath, less than normal
    • ex: hypoxemia (less than normal blood oxygen level)
  18. hypo-
    • under, below, beneath, less than normal
    • ex: hypoglycemia (less than normal blood sugar)
  19. multi-
    • many
    • ex: multipara (to bear many children)
  20. poly-
    • many, much
    • ex: polyarthritis (inflammation of many joints)
  21. ab-
    • from, away from
    • ex: abduct (to move away from the midline of the body)
  22. ad-
    • toward, increase
    • ex: adduct (movement toward the midline of the body)
  23. ambi-
    • both, both sides
    • ex: ambidextrous (able to use both hands well)
  24. ante-
    • before, in front
    • ex: antecubital (the space in front of the elbow)
  25. circum-
    • around
    • ex: circumoral (around the mouth)
  26. de-
    • down, from
    • ex: descend (to come down from)
  27. dia-
    • through
    • ex: diagnosis (knowledge through testing)
  28. ecto-
    • outside
    • ex: ectopic (outside of its normal location)
  29. endo-
    • within
    • ex: endocervical (pertaining to the inner lining of the cervix)
  30. epi-
    • upon, over
    • ex: epigastric (upon the stomach)
  31. ex-
    • out, away from, outside
    • ex: extract (to remove a tooth away from the oral cavity)
  32. exo-
    • outside, outward
    • ex: exogenous (originating outside the body)
  33. extra-
    • outside, beyond
    • ex: extrahepatic (outside of the liver)
  34. hypo-
    • under, below, beneath, less than normal
    • ex: hypoglossal (under the tongue)
  35. in-
    • in, inside, within, not
    • ex: intubate (to insert a tube into an organ or body cavity)
  36. infra-
    • beneath, below, under
    • ex: infrapatellar (below the knee)
  37. inter-
    • between
    • ex: intercostal (between the ribs)
  38. intra-
    • within
    • ex: intravenous (within a vein)
  39. juxta-
    • near, beside
    • ex: juxtaarticular (pertaining to a location near a joint)
  40. meso-
    • middle
    • ex: mesoderm (the middle of the 3 layers of skin)
  41. para-
    • near, beside, beyond, two like parts
    • ex: paracervical (near or beside the cervix)
  42. peri-
    • around
    • ex: perianal (around the anus)
  43. pre-
    • before, in front
    • ex: precordial (the region "of the chest wall" in front of the heart
  44. pro-
    • in front, before
    • ex: prognosis (knowledge before)
  45. re-
    • back, again
    • ex: reactivate (to make active again)
  46. retro-
    • backward, behind
    • ex: retroflexion (an abnormal position of an organ in which the organ is tilted backward)
  47. sub-
    • under, below
    • ex: sublingual (under the tongue)
  48. supra-
    • above, over
    • ex: suprapubic (above or over the pubic area)
  49. trans-
    • across, through
    • ex: transurethral (across or through the urethra)
  50. What is/are the prefix/combining form(s) for black?
    melan/o
  51. What is/are the prefix/combining form(s) for blue?
    cyan/o
  52. What is/are the prefix/combining form(s) for gray,silver?
    • glauc/o
    • poli/o
  53. What is/are the prefix/combining form(s) for green?
    chlor/o
  54. What is/are the prefix/combining form(s) for purple?
    purpur/o
  55. What is/are the prefix/combining form(s) for red?
    • erythr/o
    • eosin/o
    • rube-
  56. What is/are the prefix/combining form(s) for white?
    • alb-
    • albin/o
    • leuk/o
  57. What is/are the prefix/combining form(s) for yellow?
    • cirrh/o
    • jaund/o
    • xanth/o
  58. alb-
    • white
    • ex: albino (person who has a marked deficiency of pigment in their eyes, hair, and skin; has abnormally white skin)
  59. chlor/o
    • green
    • ex: chlorophyll (green pigment in plants that accomplishes photosynthesis)
  60. cirrh/o
    • yellow, tawny
    • ex: cirrhosis (chronic degenerative disease of the liver with resultant yellowness of the liver and skin)
  61. cyan/o
    • blue
    • ex: cyanoderma (slightly bluish dark discoloration of the skin)
  62. eosin/o
    • red, rosy
    • ex: eosinophil (bilobed leukocyte that stains a red, rosy color with acid dye)
  63. erythr/o
    • red
    • ex: erythrocyte (mature red blood cell)
  64. glauc/o
    • gray, silver
    • ex: disorder of the eye due to an increase in intraocular pressure, creates a dull gray glean of the affected eye)
  65. jaund/o
    • yellow
    • ex: jaundice (yellow discoloration of the skin)
  66. lute/o
    • yellow
    • ex: corpus luteum (yellow glandular mass on the surface of the ovary)
  67. leuk/o
    • white
    • ex: leukoplakia (white hard thickened patches firmly attached to the mucuous membrane in areas such as the mouth)
  68. melan/o
    • black
    • ex: malanoma (darkly pigmented cancerous tumor)
  69. poli/o
    • gray
    • ex: poliomyelitis (inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord)
  70. purpur/o
    • purple
    • ex: purpura (collection of blood beneath the skin, appear as red/purple skin discolorations)
  71. rube-
    • red
    • ex: rubella (viral disease characterized by fevel, cold symptoms, and a fine, red rash).
  72. xanth/o
    • yellow
    • ex: xanthoderma (yellow coloration of the skin)
  73. a-
    • without, not, no
    • ex: apnea (without breathing)
  74. an-
    • without, not, no
    • ex: anesthesia (without feeling)
  75. ana-
    • not, without
    • ex: anaplasia (without formation or development)
  76. anti-
    • against
    • ex: antidote (a drug or technique that opposes [works against] athe action of a poison).
  77. contra-
    • against
    • ex: contraceptive (any device or technique that prevents [works against] conception),
  78. dis-
    • free of, undo
    • ex: discharge (the release a substance or object)
  79. im-
    • not
    • ex: impotence (an adult male's inability to acheive penile erection)
  80. in-
    • in, inside, within, not
    • ex: incompetent (not capable)
  81. non-
    • not
    • ex: noninvasive (technique that does not require the skin to be broken)
  82. auto-
    • self
    • ex: autograft (a graft transferred from one part of a patient's body to another)
  83. bio-
    • life
    • ex: biology (the study of life)
  84. brady-
    • slow
    • ex: bradycardia (slow heartbeat)
  85. con-
    • together, with
    • ex: congenital (born with)
  86. eu-
    • well, easily, good, normal
    • ex: eupnea (normal breathing)
  87. hetero-
    • different
    • ex: heterogeneous (composed of different or unlike substances).
  88. homeo-
    • likeness, same
    • ex: homeostasis (a relative consistency [likeness] in the internal environment of the body).
  89. homo-
    • same
    • ex: homogenesis (having the same origins)
  90. hydro-
    • water
    • ex: hydrocephalus (an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the head)
  91. idio-
    • individual
    • ex: idiosyncrasy (individual sensitivity to effects of a drug caused by inherited or other bodily constituted factors).
  92. meta-
    • beyond, after
    • ex: metacarpals (bones after the carpal [wrist] bones, the hand bones)
  93. pan-
    • all
    • ex: pancarditis (inflammation of the entire heart)
  94. per-
    • through
    • ex: percussion (striking through)
  95. post-
    • after, behind
    • ex: postcibal (after meals)
  96. pseudo-
    • false
    • ex: pseudoanorexia (condition in which an individual east secretly but claims a lack of appetite).
  97. sym-
    • joined, together
    • ex: sympathetic (showing compassion for another's grief, joined in disease)
  98. syn-
    • joined, together
    • ex: syndrome (a group of symptoms joined by a common cause)
  99. tachy-
    • rapid
    • ex: tachycardia (rapid heartbeat)
  100. ultra-
    • beyond, excess
    • ex: ultrasound (sound waves at very high frequency)

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