Anatomy Chapter 07
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Anatomy Chapter 07
What is the basic structural and functional unit of life?
What is the study of cells?
Who first described microorganisms?
Antony van Leeuwenhock
Who first used the term "cell"?
The work of several scientists led to the establishment of cell theory. What two German scientists are associated with this theory?
Schleiden and Schwann
During what time period did Schleiden and Schwann propose their theory?
Cells vary in size and shape. Why?
form follows function
How does the plasma membrane function as the "gatekeeper" of the cell?
it regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell
What are lipids?
organic compounds that are insoluble in water
List the three types of lipids found in the plasma membrane.
phospholipids, cholesterol, & glycolipids
What is a protein?
an organic polymer composed of amino acids
What is cytosol?
the fluid of the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum - What is this organelle? What is it's function?
an extensive intracellular membrane network throughout the cytoplasm
to produce, process, & transport proteins
synthesis, transport, storage, & detoxification
What is rough ER?
What is its function?
ribosomes attached to the surface
What makes rough ER appear rough?
ribosomes attached to its surface
What is smooth ER?
What are the various functions of this organelle?
continuous, even surface
synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates & detoxification
Golgi apparatus - What is it?
several tiny membranous sacs or vesicles located near the nucleus
modifies & packages material from the rough ER
Lysosomes - What are they?
membranous spheres containing enzymes that break down worn out parts of the cell or substances phagocytized by the cell
the digestive system for the cell
Peroxisomes - What are they?
sacs containing catalase that converts H
Mitochondria - What are they?
the powerhouse of the cell
Ribosomes - Define and give the function of these organelles.
dense granules that are responsible for protein synthesis
Cytoskeleton - What is it and what are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
protein subunits organized as filaments or hollow tubes
maintains cell shape
What is the centriole-containing region of clear cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus?
What are the rodlike organelles which produce spindle fibers during cell division?
What are the numerous, short, hair-like projections that wave and move substance along a passage?
What is the long tubular structure whose whipping movement propels cells forward?
What are the thin, immobile projections of the superficial surface of the plasma membrane that increase surface area?
Inclusions - What are they?
chemical substance found in the cytosol
What is the complete term for DNA?
Nuclear envelope - What is it?
bi-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus
How does the nuclear envelope differ from the plasma membrane in its structure?
Nucleoli - What are they?
dark-staining, spherical bodies responsible for making the small and large subunits of ribosomes
What is the DNA and the protein molecules it is wrapped around?
What are linear structures formed from chromatin?