Anatomy Chapter 07

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Anatomy Chapter 07
2011-04-11 22:38:11
Human Anatomy

The Cell
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  1. What is the basic structural and functional unit of life?
    the cell
  2. What is the study of cells?
  3. Who first described microorganisms?
    Antony van Leeuwenhock
  4. Who first used the term "cell"?
    Robert Hooke
  5. The work of several scientists led to the establishment of cell theory. What two German scientists are associated with this theory?
    Schleiden and Schwann
  6. During what time period did Schleiden and Schwann propose their theory?
  7. Cells vary in size and shape. Why?
    form follows function
  8. How does the plasma membrane function as the "gatekeeper" of the cell?
    it regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell
  9. What are lipids?
    organic compounds that are insoluble in water
  10. List the three types of lipids found in the plasma membrane.
    phospholipids, cholesterol, & glycolipids
  11. What is a protein?
    an organic polymer composed of amino acids
  12. What is cytosol?
    the fluid of the cytoplasm
  13. Define organelle.
    "little organs"
  14. Endoplasmic reticulum - What is this organelle? What is it's function?
    • an extensive intracellular membrane network throughout the cytoplasm
    • to produce, process, & transport proteins
    • synthesis, transport, storage, & detoxification
  15. What is rough ER?
    What is its function?
    • ribosomes attached to the surface
    • protein synthesis
  16. What makes rough ER appear rough?
    ribosomes attached to its surface
  17. What is smooth ER?
    What are the various functions of this organelle?
    • continuous, even surface
    • synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates & detoxification
  18. Golgi apparatus - What is it?
    • several tiny membranous sacs or vesicles located near the nucleus
    • modifies & packages material from the rough ER
  19. Lysosomes - What are they?
    • membranous spheres containing enzymes that break down worn out parts of the cell or substances phagocytized by the cell
    • the digestive system for the cell
  20. Peroxisomes - What are they?
    sacs containing catalase that converts H2O2 into water
  21. Mitochondria - What are they?
    the powerhouse of the cell
  22. Ribosomes - Define and give the function of these organelles.
    dense granules that are responsible for protein synthesis
  23. Cytoskeleton - What is it and what are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
    • protein subunits organized as filaments or hollow tubes
    • maintains cell shape
  24. What is the centriole-containing region of clear cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus?
  25. What are the rodlike organelles which produce spindle fibers during cell division?
  26. What are the numerous, short, hair-like projections that wave and move substance along a passage?
  27. What is the long tubular structure whose whipping movement propels cells forward?
  28. What are the thin, immobile projections of the superficial surface of the plasma membrane that increase surface area?
  29. Inclusions - What are they?
    chemical substance found in the cytosol
  30. What is the complete term for DNA?
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  31. Nuclear envelope - What is it?
    bi-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus
  32. How does the nuclear envelope differ from the plasma membrane in its structure?
    nuclear pores
  33. Nucleoli - What are they?
    dark-staining, spherical bodies responsible for making the small and large subunits of ribosomes
  34. What is the DNA and the protein molecules it is wrapped around?
  35. What are linear structures formed from chromatin?