Punishment and Reinforcement
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Emotional responses (e.g., crying, anger), escape/avoidance, aggression, modeling, perpetuation of punishment (i.e., continued use of an ineffective procedure due to negative reinforcement afforded the caregiver), individuals becoming conditioned punisher, no establishment of alternative behavior, need for the presence of the punishing agent, presumed punisher is actually a reinforcer, and withdrawal are disadvantages of ______________.
Disadvantages of punishment include:
Emotional responses (e.g., crying, anger)
- perpetuation of punishment (i.e., continued use of an ineffective procedure due to negative reinforcement afforded the caregiver)
- individuals becoming conditioned punisher
- no establishment of alternative behavior
- need for the presence of the punishing agent
- presumed punisher is actually a reinforcer
Guidelines for effective use of DRO include:
- Determine the DRO interval
- Develop a procedure for increasing that interval
- Provide reinforcement contingent upon no occurrences of the target behavior during the interval
- Combine DRO with other procedures
Reinforcement contingent upon behavior that cannot be done at the same time as the problem behavior is
DRI - Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors
Reinforcement only after responding above a predetermined rate is...
DRH - Differential reinforcement of high rates
Reinforcement is provided contingent upon the non-occurrence of behavior
DRO - Differential reinforcement of other or omission of behavior
Reinforcement of behaviors that are appropriate alternatives to the target behavior is...
DRA - Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors
DRA (Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors) is an umbrella term under which fall...
- DRI - Incompatible
- DRC - Communicative
Reinforcement of behaviors below a certain level is...
DRL - Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate Behaviors
Reinforcement is contingent upon responding during the session being at or below a specific rate.
Full-Session (Limited Responding) DRL
DRL in which the session is divided into equal intervals; reinforcement is contingent upon responding during the session being at or below a specified criterion; responding above the criterion rate resets the interval.
Reinforcement is provided after a specified IRT is achieved is...
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