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hisorically, the ___________ was responsible information about the sources, physical and chemical properties, and coumpounding and dispensing of drugs.
Historically the clinician was responsible for information about what 3 things about drugs?
- physical and chemical properties
- compounding and dispensing of drugs
Who is now responsible for information about the sources, physical and chemical properties, and compounding and dispensing of drugs?
pharamacologists and pharmacists
What does the practitioner's responsibility relate to today?
the clinical application of this knowledge, they must understand basic principles of pharmacology as they apply to druges used in oral health care as well as other drugs taken by the pt
What are 4 important principles that practitioner's must understand to provide for more efficient communication when explaining drug effects to the patient?
- how a drug works (mechanism of action)
- side effects or ADEs that are possible
- oral health education related to drug
- risks of taking a drug
The 4 principles that practitioner's must understand to provide for efficient communication when explaining drug affects pertain to what 3 things?
- pharmacodynamics (drug's mechanism of action)
- pharmacokinetics (movment of drug through the body)
- pharmacotherapeuitc variables (adverse effects of taking drug)
The science of molecular interactions between drugs and body constituents, it relates to the biochemical and physiologic actions of drugs
What are 4 steps that a drug goes through when it is delivered to the tissue cells in pharmacodynamics?
- Delivery of molecule to tissue cells
- complex formation with receptor (site of action)
- molecular event causing an effect
- mechanism of action
delivery of molecule to tissue cells
step one of pharmacodynamics of drugs
formation of a complex or bond between the drug molecule and a cell component called the drug receptor
step 2 of pharmacodynamics of drugs
the receptor site where a drug acts to initiate a series of boichemical and physiologic effects is that drugs site of action (molecular event causing an effect)
step 3 of pharamcodynamics of drugs
the molecular event that follows this drug-recepto interaction is called the drug's mechanism of action
step 4 of pharmacodynamics of drugs
true or false. ALL drugs interact with specific receptors to cause an effect.
FALSE. NOT all drugs interact with specific receptors to cause an effect
What is an example of a drug that has a specific receptor to cause an effect?
epinephrine in local anesthetic agents
large, highly specialiezed molecules, which are components of the plasma membrane or are located intracellularly
The idea that drug molecules and their receptors must have similar structures (structural specificity) is described as what?
"lock and key" complementary fits
How many molecules can bind to a receptor at a time?
electropositive or electronegative force that functions to attract the drug molecule to the receptor
electrochemical force feature of receptors
The feature of receptors being _________ or _________ to attract or repel a molecule
___________ are cellular macromolecules; which is a defining factor in determining their function
What are the 7 characteristics of drug receptors listed in box 2-1?
- Cellular Macromolecules
- Location on the cell surface or within the cell
- Hundreds of different receptors on a single cell
- Complementary Fit between drug and receptor
- Electrochemical Charge
- Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic
- Only One drug molecule can occupy a receptro at One time
drugs attach to or interacti with these receptor sites through various types of what?
What are the 4 types of chemical bonds that drugs attach or interact with receptor sites through?
- van der Waals force
What are the 2 most common types of chemical bonds between drugs and receptors and why?
- hydrogen and ionic
- they are similar bonds and both involve an electrochemical attractions, they require little energy and are made and broken easily
interactions that occur between atoms with opposite charges
which type of bonds are weak and easily reversed?
when bound to nitrogen or oxygen hydrogen atoms become positively poarized and bind to negatively poarized atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur, in what type of chemical bond?
are ionic or hydrogen bonds generally weaker?
the strongest type of bond between a drug and its receptor, resulting from the sharing of electrons by two atoms. The energy required to overcome such interactions can be so great that the bond is often irreversible
What is a good dental example of a covalent bond?
the complex formed between tetracycline and dentin to produce a permanent intrinsic discoloration
nondescript forces contribute to the mutual attraction between organic molecules through a shifting of electron density in or around a molecule that results in the generation of transient positive or negative charges
van der Waals forces
true or false. van der Waals forces provides for a weak attractive force between some drugs and their receptors
drug molecules move in constant random motion, binding then releasing the bond, then binding again according to the _______ of the molecule and _________ from other drug molecules