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what are the 2 most common methods of calculating pediatric medications?
- body weight
- body surface area (BSA)
what is the most accurate method for determining the dosage for children?
BSA (body surface area)
_________ is a function of the height and weight of a child
body surface area
true or false. when pediatric dosages are available from the manufacturer, it is best to use the manufacturer's recommendation
Why is the BSA (body surface area) rule considered the most accurate in figuring out pediatric dose?
because weight varies in children of the same age
The BSA of a child is determined by plotting a child's height and weight on a graph called a what?
What are the 3 main rules for child dose calculations?
- young's rule
- clark's rule
- body surface area rule
What is the formula for young's rule for child dose calculation?
child's dose (1-12y)= child's age (in y) x adult dose/child's age (in y) + 12
what is the formula for clark's rule for child dose calculation?
child's dose= weight of child (in lb) x adult dose/150 lb
What is the formula for the body surface area rule for child dose calculation?
child's dose= surface area of child (in square meters) x adult dose/1.73
Over the years, congress has enacted more than 50 pieces of legislation related to drug control; what act collects and conforms most of these diverse laws into one piece of legislation?
the controlled substance act of 1970
what act is designed to improve the administraion and regulation of manufacturing, distributing, and dispensing of controlled drugs, and to provide a "closed" system for the lefitimate handlers of controlled substances?
the controlled substances act of 1970
Every practitioner who administers, prescribes, or dispenses controlled substances must be registered with what?
DEA's registration unit
true or false. If a clinician has more than one office from which he or she prescribes drugs listed in the 5 schedules, then the clinician must register each location
true or false. the number on the certificate of registration must be indicated on all prescription orders for controlled substances and must correspond to the specific office location
What 3 factors are considered in determining the approval or denial of an application for DEA number?
- the recommendation of the appropriate state licensing board
- the applicant's experience in despensing or conducting research with respect to controlled substances
- the applicant's conviction redord
Controlled (C) substances that come under the jurisdiction of the CSA are divided into 5 schedules according to the ________ and _______ of the drug
drugs have no legal medical use in the U.S. and have a high abuse potential. they may be used for research purposes and must be obtained from government agencies
Drug Schedule I (C - I)
selected opiates (heroin, opium, derivatives)
are example of what drug schedule?
Schedule I (C - I)
drugs have legal medical uses in the U.S., they they have high abuse potential, which may lead to sever psychologic and/or physical dependance. A written prescription is required for these; and refilling them is prohibited. In the case of a bona fide emergency, a practitioner may telephone a prescription order to a pharmacist. In such a case, the drug prescribed must be limited to the amt needed to treat the pt during the emergency period. Such oral orders must be followed up by written orders within 72 hrs
Drug Schedule II (C - II)
selected opiates (morphine, and congeners, codeine congeners, methadone)
some barbiturates (secobarbital)
Schedule II (C - II)
drugs have legal medical uses in the U.S. and a moderat abuse potential which may lead to moderate psychologic and/or physical dependence. A prescription for these may be issued either orally or in writing to the pharmacist, and it may be refilled up to 5 times within 6 months after the date of issue if so authorized on the prescription. After 5 refills or after 6 months, a new oral or written prescription is required
Drug schedule III (C - III)
selected opiate combinations (acetaminophen [APAP] with codeine hydrocodone mixtures [vicodin])
schedule III (C - III)
drugs have legal medical uses in the U.S. and a low abuse potential, which may lead to moderate psychologic and/or physical dependance. A prescription order for these may be issued either orally or in writing to the pharmacist and it may be refilled up to 5 times within 6 months after the date of issue, if so authorized on the prescription. After 5 refills or after 6 months, a new oral or written prescription is required
Drug Schedule IV (C - IV)
benzodiazepines (diazapam [valium])
selected opiates (propoxyphene [darvon])
some barbiturates (phenobarbital)
Schedule IV (C - IV)
drugs have legal medical uses in the U.S. and a low abuse potential, which may lead to moderate psychologic and/or physical dependence. A prescription order for these drugs may be issued either orally or in wrtiing to the pharmacist and may be refilled if so authorized on the prescription. Some states allow these drugs to be sold over the counter provided they are dispensed by a pharmacist and the pt is at least 18 years of age. A record of the transaction must be kept by the pharmacist if permitted by law
Drug Schedule V (C - V)
selected opiates (cough and diarrhea preparations)
Schedule V (C - V)
What are the 5 rules for prescribing scheduled drugs?
- written in ink or typed
- bear the full name and address of pt
- list the full name, address, and DEA registration number of the practitioner
- must be dated
- must be manually signed by practitioner
When prescribing a controlled substance, the clinician must write out what to discourage alterations in written prescription orders?
the actual amount in addition to an arabic number or roman numeral
Whose responsibility is it to be aware of gimmicks and techniques used by drug abusers to obtain controlled substances?
What are triplicate prescription blanks?
required by some states when schedule II drugs are prescribed; after a prescription is written, one copy is placed in the dentist's records, the other 2 copies are given to the pt which are then given to the pharmacist, the pharmacist keeps one, and the other is sent to the state regulatory agency