Immune Response

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Author:
hgienau
ID:
61388
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Immune Response
Updated:
2011-01-24 19:33:05
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Patho Test One
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immune system
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  1. Define Non-specific Immunity
    • Skin, sucous membranes, secretions
    • Phagocytosis, inflammation
  2. Specific Immunity
    Immune system stimulates a specific response to specific foreign matter
  3. Anitgen
    Protien marker on a cell that identifies that cell as self or non-self or foreign cells themselves
  4. Antibody
    • a comples glycoprotein produced in response to presence of an antigen
    • 5 different types of anibodies
  5. What is the immune response?
    The bodies reaction to foreign antigens so that they are neutralized or eliminated thus preventing damage
  6. Define Cell Mediated
    T-lymphocytes
  7. Define Humoral
    B-lymphocytes
  8. T-Lymphocytes
    Arise from stem cells in bone marrow, travel to thymus (are further differentiated)
  9. Macrophages
    • in live lungs and lymph nodes process the antigen and present it to the lymphocytes to initiate immune response
    • also do phagocytosis
  10. Explain Cell Mediated
    • T-lymphocytes recognize anitgen on surface of macrophage -directly destroy
    • Memory T cells remain in lymph nodes
    • Memory Cells are ready to activate same respone if anitgen returns
  11. What is Cell Mediated Immunity Most Effective against?
    • virus
    • fungus
    • protozoa
    • cancer
    • foreign cells
  12. Explain Humoral Immunity
    • B-Lymphocytes (plasma cells) produced in bone marrow the travel to spleen and lymph tissue
    • Produce anitbodies or immunoglobulins (proteins that bind wiht antigen & destroy it)
  13. What is Humoral Immunity Most Effective Against?
    Bacteria and Virus outside of cell body
  14. List the 5 types of Anitbodies
    • IgM - 1st antibodies, bound to B-lymphocytes in circulation and is usually the first to incrase in the immuse repsonse, activates complement
    • IgA - in epithelia, found in secrtions such as tears and saliva, mucous membraes and colostrum (1st breast milk)
    • IgD - attached to B cells, activates B cells
    • IgG - Old antibodies, most common in blood, crosses placenta, activates complement
    • IgE- Inflammation,
  15. What body parts are involved in the immune system
    • Adenoid & Tonsils
    • Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels
    • Thymus
    • Spleen
    • Bone Marrow
  16. Define Active Immunity
    body develops antibodies or T cells
  17. Natural Active Immunity
    • Antibodies are created after and exposure to the antigen
    • Person Gets the chicken pox
  18. Artificial Active Immunity
    • Vaccine (live or attenuated organisms) is injects and antibodies are formed.
    • No illness
    • Measles vaccine
  19. Define Passive Immunity
    antibodies are transferred into you body from another source
  20. Naural Passive Immunity
    • Antibodies passed from mother to child (temporary)
    • Placental passage or breast milk
  21. Artificial Passive Immunity
    Antibodies injected into a person (antiserum) to provide temporary protection or minimize severity of infection
  22. How do Vaccinations work?
    • Memory T cells remain in lymph noes ready to activate the response again if needed
    • Blood tests can reveal the titer of existing antibodies
  23. Types of Tissue Transplants
    • Allograft - human to human
    • Isograft - identical twins
    • Autograft - one body part to another body part
    • Xenograft - animal to human
  24. Define Immunosuppression
    medications used to decrease the immune response to the tissue or organ that has been transplanted
  25. Types of Hypersensitivity
    • Type I- allergy
    • Type II - Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
    • Type III - Immune complex hypersensitivity
    • Type IV - Cell mediated/ Delayed
  26. Allergic Respone
    • Ex: hay fever, anaphylaxis , food allergy, asthma
    • 1st exposure: develops IgE antibodies. Bind to mast cells
    • 2nd exposure: antigen bind to sensitized mast cell, releases of chemical mediators, inflammation (edema, redness, pruritis)
  27. Causes of Anaphylacitc Shock
    • Insect Stings
    • Ingestion of nuts or shellfish
    • Penicillin
    • Local Anaethesia
    • Latex
  28. What happens during Anaphylactic Shock
    • Large amount of chemical mediator (histamine) released into circulation causing vasodilation
    • Loss of consciousness in minutes
  29. Clinical signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock
    • Skin : pruritus, tingling, warmth, hives
    • Respriations: airway obstruction difficulty in breathing, cough, wheezing, tights feeling
    • Cardivascular: sudden severe drop in BP severe hypoxia
    • Central Nervous System: anxiety and fear, weakness, dizziness, and loss of consciousness
  30. Treatment for Anaphalactic Shock
    • Emergency treatment: epinephrine injection, O2, first aide for shock - transport
    • Follow up treatment - allergy test, pt advised to avoid triggering allergen
    • Pt my also be advised to carry and epi pen
  31. Examples of Cytotoxic
    • Examples: ABO incompatibility, Rh factor (mother to fetus)
    • Anitgen present on cell membrane circulation antibodies react causing destruction of cell (lysis or phagocytosis)
  32. Define Complement
    group of proteins when activated stimulate release of cehmical mediators causes inflammation
  33. Define Immune Complex Hyperensitiviy
    • Type 3 hypersensitivity
    • Examples: Lupus and RA
    • Antigen/ antibody form a complex that desposity in blood vessel walls causing complement to be activated causing inflammation and tissue destruction
  34. Delayed Reaction Hypersensitivity
    • Examples : TB skin test, contact dermatitis, transplant rejetion, latex allergy ( can be I or IV)
    • macrophage presents antigen
    • Antigen binds to T-lymphocytes; sensitized lymphocyte releases lymphokinins causes delayed inflammation
  35. Signs and Symptoms of SLE
    • Lupus
    • Signs and Symptoms: Joint pain, skin (butterfly rash), inflammation of kindeys, lungs, and heart, Periodic spasm of blood vessels, Depression of CNS, bone marrow anemia
  36. Tests and medication for SLE
    • clusters of S&S over time, blood work: hi ERS, presence of LE cells
    • Medical management: prednisone to decrease inflammtion, manage symptoms
    • difficult to hold job
  37. Chronis Fatigue Syndrome
    • S & S- excessive, disabiling fatigue
    • Diagnosis: need to rule out psychiatric neuro, digestive and other causes
    • Medical Management: diet and bio-feedback
    • Functional limitations: low endurance, often unable to work
    • Increase Endurance
  38. Causes of Immunodeficiency
    loss of function of one or more components of immune system ST or LT
  39. Types of Immunodeficiency
    • Primary: developmental failure somewhere in the system ( genetic)
    • Secondary: (aquired) infection, malnutrition, speleenectomy
    • Drug induced: after organ transplant
  40. Effects and Treatment of Immunodeficiency
    • Effects: Increased risk of opportunisitc infections
    • Treatment: replacement therapy using gamma globulin sheltered evnironment (passive immunity)
  41. HIV
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • Transmission
    • Direct contact with blood, body fluids
  42. HIV and AIDS Mechanism
    • HIV virus infects T-helper cells
    • Phase 1: test is positive 2-10 weeks as antibodies form
    • Phase 2: latent (can be years)
    • Phase 3: acute immunodeficiency and diagnosis of AIDS
  43. Signs and Symptoms of AIDS
    • General: lymphadenopathy, fatigue, weakness, headache, and arthralgia
    • Neurological: brian cells can become infected by virus; affect cognition, coordination, balance
    • Secondary Infections
    • Cancer: Kaposi's sarcoma
  44. Pediatric AIDS
    children and be born HIV positive and convert to negative
  45. Functional Limittions of AIDS
    • fatigue, weakness pain
    • Decrease balance
    • Dementia -effects ADL's
    • Respiratory complications - causes death
  46. Diagnosis of AIDS
    • HIV: test of HIV anitbodies ELISA(enyzme linked immunosorband assay
    • AIDS:
    • Decrease in T-helper lymphocytes in blood
    • Lymphopenia in presence of opportunisic infections
  47. Medical Management
    • Anti-viral meds (AZT)
    • Management of symptoms
    • fatigue, pain, constipation, ect
  48. PT/OT involvement
    • Work simplification / energy conservation
    • ROM. flexibilty
    • Balance and Coordination, Functional training with emphasis on safety
    • Depression - use perposeful goal realted actvities
    • Address pain
    • Peds: address developmental delay

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