Q1 Molecular Biology
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What is Molecular Biology?
Study of the molecular basis of life including the biochemistry of molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins
What is an organic compound?
Carbon and Hydrogen
What is a functional group?
Clustes of atoms that determine the properties of organic compounds
What is an isomer?
Two compounds that identical molecular formula but different structures
What is a stereoisomer?
- Mirror image.
- Same connection, but different arrangement
What is an ionic bond?
One atom loses electrons and another atom gains it.
What is a cation and an anion?
- Cation- positively charged
- Anion- negatively charged
What is a covalent bond?
Two atoms share a pair of electrons
What are the two types of covalent bonding and what is the difference?
- Polar- unequal sharing of electrons
- Non polar- Equal sharing of electrons
What is a hydrogen bond?
A weak, temporary attraction between atoms with partial electric charges
What is a biopolymer?
What is a polymer?
Macromolecules formed by joining several monomers
What is a macromolecule?
Joined individual repeating monomers
What are the major functions of protein
structural support, transport, hormone, enzyme, defense, movement, and gene expression.
What is the building block of protein?
What are the 3 major components of an amino acid?
- Remainder group
What are the main functions of nucleotides?
- Information storage (DNA)
- Protein synthesis (RNA)
- Energy transfers (ATP and NAD)
What does a nucleotide consist of?
- Sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
- Phosphate backbone
- Nitrogenous base
How do bacteria reproduce?
How are bacteria cells classified?
- Demand for O2
- Mode of nutrition
- Stain Retention
What are the 3 groups of prokaryotes based on demand for O2?
- Aerobic- requires O2
- Facultative anaerobic- able to grow in the presence or absence of O2
- Obligate anaerobic- unable to grow in the presence of O2
What are the two types of mode of nutrition?
- Autotrophic- produce organic molecules
- Heterotrophic- do not produce organic molecules
What are the two classifications of stain retention in bacteria?
- Gram positive- purple
- Gram negative- pink
What is the tendency for traits to passed from parent to offspring called?
What is a wiled type gene?
The original version
What is each trait determined by?
two alleles (maternal and paternal)
What is meiosis?
A cell division to make gametes for reproduction
What is incomplete dominance?
Not all alternative alleles are fully dominant or fully recessive in heterozygotes
What is codominance?
Produce heterozygote phenotype that is a combination of the two homozygotes
What do chromosomes contain?
- Intergenic region
- Regulatory region
Why cells duplicate its DNA?
- Key for cell division
What are the two enzymes used to separate strands of DNA?
- DNA Gyrase - uncoil supercoiled DNA
- DNA Helicase - separate strands
DNA polymerase fills the gap between what?
What is a primer?
Short fragment of RNA complementary to templet strand
What is a primase?
Enzyme that make primers
What is PCR used for?
- Clinical diagnosis
- Genetic Analysis
- Genetic Engineering
- Forensic Analysis
What do we need for PCR?
- Template DNA
- PCR Primer (Forward and Reverse)
- Enzyme (Taq polymerase)
- PCR machine- thermocycler
What are the three basic steps of PCR?
- Primer annealing
- Primer extension
Why do we use degenerate primer?
To find the DNA sequence of an organism
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