Oxygen.txt

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nursing1
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61459
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Oxygen.txt
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2011-03-19 12:52:12
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Unit 3 Oxygen
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  1. Adventitious
    not normal, from an outside source
  2. Afebrile
    without a fever, when a fever breaks
  3. antipyretic
    • fever reducers-
    • ex NSAIDS and corticosteriods
  4. apical rate
    the heart rate as ausculated w a stethescope palced on the chest wass adjacent to the cardiac apex
  5. apnea
    absence of normal breathing
  6. ashen
    gray
  7. atelectasis
    collapse of the alveoli
  8. ausculatory gap
    when taking BP in a hypertensive pt, the sounds usually hears over the brachial artery disappear at high pressure and reappear when the pressure is at a lower level
  9. blood pressure
    the pressure exherted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries, veins and the chamber of the heart
  10. bradychardia
    a slow HR

    <60bpm in adults
  11. bradypnea
    a slow RR

    < 10bpm in adults
  12. cheyne-stokes breathing
    an abnormal pattern of respiration that is characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep rapid breathing
  13. crepitus
    the crackle of a consolidated area of the lung

    normally a sign of pneumonis or air in the the superficial tissue
  14. cyanosis
    blueish discoloration of the skin due to a lack of O2 in the blood
  15. diastole
    ventricular relaxation

    blood fills the heart
  16. dyspnea
    breathlessness

    also is a sign of hypoxia
  17. dysrhythmia
    a deviation from the normal sinus rhythm
  18. edema
    swelling

    an accumulation of fluid
  19. erythema
    a red discoloration that may be indicitive of circulatory changes
  20. eupnea
    normal breathing
  21. febrile
    with a fever

    body temp over 100*f
  22. fever
    an abnormal elevation of body temp that is above 98.6*f or 37*c

    normally is caused by disease
  23. F.U.O.
    fever of unknown origin
  24. hemoptysis
    bloody sputum
  25. hypertension
    persistant elevated BP that is above 140/90
  26. hyperthermia
    an elevated body temperature that is due to the bodies inability to promote heat loss or reduce heat
  27. Hypotension
    when systolic BP falls below 90mmHg
  28. Hypothermia
    core temperature falls below 95*f
  29. hyperventilation
    ventilation that is in excess of what is required to eliminate normal venous CO2
  30. hypovolemia
    an abnormally low circulating volume of blood
  31. Hypoventilation
    when ventilation is inadequate to meet the body's O2 demands and sufficient enough to eliminate CO2
  32. Hypoxia
    inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level
  33. Incentive Spirometer
    incourages voluntary deep breathing by providing visual feedback to pts about inspiratory volume
  34. Jaundice
    a yellow discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes caused by excessive bilirubin
  35. Korotkoff Sounds
    sounds heard during the taking of BP
  36. Orthopnea
    a condition where a person needs to sit or stand to breathe comfortably
  37. Orthostatic Hypotension
    abnormally low BP which occurs when a person stands b/c the blood has pooled
  38. Pallor
    an unnatural paleness or absence of skin color
  39. palpitations
    pounding or racing of the heart
  40. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea (PND)
    • sudden, severe shortness of breath at night that awakens a person from sleep, often with coughing and wheezing
    • commonly occurs several hours after a person with heart failure has fallen asleep
    • often relieved by sitting upright
    • symptom of heart failure and other associated conditions such as mitral stenosis, aortic insufficiency, and systemic hypertension
  41. Peripheril Pulse Points
    • points on the extremities that are felt for a pulse
    • The brachial pulse is towards the ulnar side of the antecubital fossa in the elbow.
    • The radial pulse (and if you're careful, the ulnar) at the wrist.
    • The femoral pulse is in the groin about a third of the way out.
    • The popliteal pulse can be felt behind the knee.
    • The posterior tibial pulse is behind the medial malleolus of the ankle.
    • The dorsalis pedis is, as the name suggests, on top of the foot.
    • The temporal artery on the side of your forehead
  42. Pulse
    the palpable bounding of blood flow noted at various points of the body
  43. Pulse Deficit
    when an insufficient contraction of the heart fails to transmit a pulse wave to the periphery

    *to assess* must take the radial and apical pulse simultaneously and compare
  44. Pulse Oximetry
    is a non-invasive method allowing the monitoring of the oxygenation of a patient's hemoglobin
  45. Pulse Pressure
    the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures
  46. Pyrexia
    Fever
  47. Respiration
    • ventilation
    • diffusion
    • perfusion

    (the mechanism the body uses to exchange gasses b/t the body and the atmosphere)
  48. Systole
    contraction of the heart

    blood is ejected
  49. tachycardia
    an abnormally elevated HR

    >100bpm
  50. tachypnea
    an abnormally high RR

    > 20 bpm
  51. Temperature
    the measure of heat or cold in the body

    is the difference b/t heat produced and heat lost to the enviornment
  52. Vascular Resistance
    the elasticity of the vessels
  53. Vital Signs
    • temp
    • BP
    • Pulse
    • RR
    • O2 Saturation

    all are used as indicators of health
  54. Heart Anatomy
    • R ventricle pumps blood to the lungs
    • L ventricle pumps blood to systemic

    • heart fills with blood during diastole- relaxation
    • heart empties the blood during systole- contraction
  55. Blood Flow
    • Lungs
    • L atrium
    • Mitral Valve
    • L ventricle
    • Aortic Valve
    • Aorta
    • Systemic
    • Vena Cava
    • R atrium
    • Tricuspid Valve
    • R ventricle
    • Pulmonic Valve
    • Lungs
  56. Atrioventricular valves
    • Mitral
    • Tricuspid
  57. Semilumar Valves
    • Aortic
    • Pulmonic
  58. Normal cardiac output is _______ L/min for and 150lb adult at rest.
    4-6 L/min
  59. Normal cardiac index is ______ L/min/m2
    2.5 - 4
  60. Normal sequence of EKG is called a _________, and goes from the SA node to _____, ______ and to ______.
    Normal sinus rhythm (NSR)

    • AV node
    • Bundle of His
    • Purkinje Network
  61. SA Node is the
    • Pacemaker of the heart
    • located in the R atrium
    • nl 60-100 BPM
  62. AV Node
    • is directional, sends to either the atrium or the ventricles
    • located in the R atrium
    • nl- 40-60 BPM
  63. Factors that affect oxygenation
    • carrying capacity of the blood
    • decrease in the inspired O2 concentration
    • decrease in blood volume ( hypovolemia)
    • Increased BMR
    • Improper development
    • Lifestyle factors such as nurtition, exercise, smoking, substance abuse
    • environmental factors such as air quality, occupational hazards and stress
  64. Conditions that affect chest wall movement
    • pregnancy
    • obesity
    • musculoskeletal abnormalities
    • trauma
    • neuromuscular disease
    • CNS alterations such as TBI, spinal cord or phrenic nerve injuries
    • effects of chronic diseases
  65. Alterations in cardiac function
    • conduction disturbances- a problem with the electrical flow in the heart
    • altered cardiac output- such as poor stroke volume or ventricular contraction
    • left sided heart failure- backflow into the lungs causing congestive heart failure or pulmonary edema
    • right sided heart failure- backflow to venous circulation
    • valvular heart disease-valve degeneration caused by a regurgitation of blood
    • myocardial ischemia- insufficient O2 to the myocardium
    • angina- chest pain, a temporary imbalance b/t O2 supply and demand
    • myocardial infarction- a sudden decrease in coronary blood flow or increased myocardial O2 demand with insufficient perfusion. the infarction occurs b/c of ischemia and necrosis.

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