Pharm II (Anti Arrhythmic + Anesthesiology)

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Pharm II (Anti Arrhythmic + Anesthesiology)
2011-01-23 16:22:01
Pharm II Anti Arrhythmic Anesthesiology

Pharm II (Anti Arrhythmic + Anesthesiology)
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  1. What is the most serious side effect of Dofetilide, Idutilide, and Sotalol?
    Tosades de pointes---a varient of Ventricular tachycardia
  2. What are the Class IV drugs?
    What is there effect?

    What are they an Inappropriate treatment for?
    They are Calcium Channel blockers

    They decrease the conduction through the AV node and shorten the Plateau of the cardiac potential.

    - Innapropriate for Heart failure (would want to increase contractility)

    - They reduce the contractility of the heart.
  3. What two drugs are in group IV?

    What are they an important treatment for? What else?
    Cerapamil and Diltiazem

    • - Good for Supraventricular tachycardia
    • - Can be used in Angina, and migrain prophylaxis.
  4. What phase due they block?
    Class 1,2,3,4
    • 1- Blocks Na channels and thus phase 0.
    • 2- (Beta blockers) block phase 4
    • 3- Blocks K channels, thus Phase 3
    • 4- Blocks Ca channels, thus Phase 2
  5. What is adenosine used for?
    How does it work?

    What is its major Adverse effect?
    -It is the DOC for SVT

    -It activates the K channels in the AV node (and SA node)--> reduces the Ca ++ currents

    - Bronchiospasm
  6. What is Digoxins effects?

    What can it be used in?
    Increases vagal activity via central action on the CNS--> decreasing the conduction through the AV node

    - Used in SVT
  7. What is Magnesium used in when acting as a Anti arrhythmic drug?
    Used in Torsades de pointes and in Digoxin induced arrhythmia
  8. What can treat it?

    Atrial Flutter and fibrillation?
    Ventricular Tachycardia?
    -Class III

    -Adenosine, CCB and BB

    -Amiodarone, Lidocaine and BB
  9. What are goals of Anesthetics?
    • -Amnesia
    • -Adequate Muscle relaxation
    • -Adequate Ventilation
    • -Pain Control
  10. Name some Pre-Anesthetic drugs and their effects.
    Benzodiazepines--Decrease Anxiety

    Antihistamines-- Prevent allergic reactions

    Antiemetics--- Prevent nausea and vomiting

    Opioids----- provide Analgesia

    Atropine---- Prevent Bradycardia and secretion
  11. What are the 4 Stages of Anesthesiology?

    Which is the most dangerous?
    • 1- Analgesia
    • 2- Excitement, Combative behavior
    • 3- Surgical anesthesia
    • 4- Medullary paralysis

    Stage 2
  12. What do GA act on?
    GABA-A and NMDA receptors
  13. What are the twp types of Anesthetics?
    Inhalational--- for maintenance

    Intravenous- for induction and short precedures.
  14. Name the Inhalational Anesthetics
    Non halogenated----Nitrous oxide

    Halogenated: Holothane, Isoflurane, Desflurane and Sevoflurane
  15. What are the important characters that of inhalational anesthetics?
    • 1- Solubility in the blood
    • 2- Solubility in the fat

    note if High lipid soluble= highly POTENT
  16. What is the significance of Gas partition coefficient?
    Low= Faster induction and recovery (what you want) (ex: NO)

    High= Slow (Ex: Halothane)