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electrons in the atom's outermost energy level
family # tells what about valence electrons?
how many are available
What is directly related to the number of valence electrons?
which groups have the most reactive elements?
groups 1 and 17
in forming compounds atoms tend to gain or lose electrons to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas
Who defined the octet rule? why?
Gilbert Lewis; to explain why noble gases are unreactive.
metals ______ valence electrons; nonmetals ______ valence electrons.
electron dot structure
diagrams that show electrons as dots around an element's symbol
electrically nuetral because it has equal numbers of protons and electrons
form when an atom or groups of atoms loses or gains electrons
is formed when anatom or group of atoms loses valence electrons; postive; more protons than electrons.
- metallic elements- the name of the ion is the same as the name of the element
- -ex: sodium atom from the sodium cation (Na+)
atom or group of atoms with a negative charge
formation of anions
gain of electrons by a nuetral atom or groups of atoms
name of an anion of a non-metal is NOT the same as the neutral atom; take the root of the atom name and add suffix -ide
when group 7A(17) elements form ions we call them ______ ion.
ions of transition metals
- -charges may vary
- -some of the ions formed by transition elements do NOT have an octet configuration.
Formation of an ionic bond
- compounds composed of cations and anions
- -usually composed of metal cations and nonmetal anions
ionic compounds are _______ ________.
how do you find the total negative charge of anions?
the total positive charge of the cations is equaled by the total negative charge of the anions
electrostatic forces that hold ions together
what must be specified if cations have more than one oxidation state?
- does not indicate actual charge.
- ending in "ous": lower oxidation #
- ending in "ic": higher oxidation #
- actual charge.
- Fe+2= Iron (II)
shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance
the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
equivalent to the charge of the ions
most ionic compounds are what at room temperature?
solids that form crystals
properties of ionic compounds
high MP, brittle, not malleable or ductile, can conduct electricity when melted or dissolved
the number of ions of opposite charge that surround an ion in a crystal
results from the attraction of the free floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal ions
metals are made up of..
closely packed cations rather than neutral atoms
valence electrons of metal atoms are modeled as what?
- sea of electrons
- -valence electrons are mobile
- -they can drift freely from one part of the metal to another
sea of electrons explains many prop. of metals:
- conductivity- electricity is made up of electrons
- -as 1 electron enters the cloud at 1 end another leaves at the other end
prop. of metals
mealleability and ductility- cations slide past eachother and electrons flow around in response to the force applied
crystalline structure of metals: 3 possible arrangements
body centered, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed
- every atom except on the surface has 8 neighbors
- ex. Na, K, Fe, Cr, W
- every atom has 12 neighbors except surface atoms
- ex. Cu, Ag, Au, Al, Pb
Hexagonal close packed
- every atom has 12 neighbors like face centered but are arranged differently
- ex. Mg, Zn, Cd
- brass- alloy of copper and sinc
- -corrosion resistance,increased ductility or hardness, stronger (compared to metals)
mixtures of 2 or more elements at least one of which is a metal
atoms ofthe alloy components are similar, can replace eachother in the crystal form. EX. bronze
- atoms of the alloy components are very different in size.
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