quiz #1- neurodevelopment
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quiz #1- neurodevelopment
development of nervous system
What is the time frame for neurodevelopment?
After conception until 10 years of age
Name the 6 progressive events in neurodevelopment:
Name the regressive events in neurodevelopment:
In the stages of development archicerebellum -> paleocerebellum -> neocerebellum; what are each parts referring to?
archicerebellum= floulonobular lobe
paleocerebellum= vermal region
neocerebellum= cerebellar region
What regions develop first?
caudal vs. rostral
primitive vs. higher regions
peripheral vs. midline
True or False:
Time of neurogenesis predicts time of functional maturity.
FALSE- it does NOT predict the time of functional maturity
What are the 4 developmental stages that come before birth?
What are the 5 developmental stages after birth?
When does the preembryonic stage occur?
conception to two weeks
What is the solid sphere called that forms a cavity in the middle, during the preembryonic stage?
Where does fertilization occur during the preembryonic stage?
When does the embryonic disk form in preembryonic development?
The blastocyte implants in the endometrium, and the inner cells of that become the embryonic disk.
What are the bilaminar and trilaminar disc?
The bilaminar disc forms from the embryonic disc. It is 2 layers, the ectoderm and endoderm.
The trilaminar disc forms from the bilaminar disc, it adds another layer the mesoderm.
From the mesoderm the notochord forms, and then the ectoderm proliferates to form the neural plate.
When does the embryonic stage of development occur?
during the 3rd-8th week
What does the ectoderm form?
What does the mesoderm form?
What forms the liver, gut, pancreas, and respiratory system?
During the embryonic stage, what is the emphasis on?
When is the fetal stage?
8th week until birth
During what stage of development is the emphasis on growth of existing systems?
When does myelination begin and what is it?
Begins in fetal stage through 1st-2nd decade of life
insulation of axons by fatty tissue
About what day does the notochord develop and what are the reminants of it today?
reminants are nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc
Follow the development of the nervous system
notochord --> neural plate --> neural groove --> neural tube --> neural crest (lies dorsal/lateral to tube)
How does the neural plate form?
It forms by epidermal cells dividing like crazy
How does the neural groove form?
cells drop down and form it, the edges of the plate fold
When and how does the neural tube form?
It forms when the neural groove detaches and the sides of the groove come together
Where do the cells of the neural crest lie?
dorsal/lateral to the tube
By what day has the nervous system formed?
What are the motor and sensory portions of the neural tube?
: ventral region- motor
: dorsal region- sensory
What are the three layers of the neural tube and their significance?
: inner layer, line the ventricle
: become gray matter, make up basal and alar plate
: outer wall, develops into white matter, consist of axon and glial cells
What do the three different aspects of the somite form?
: sclerotome- becomes skull and vertebrae
: myotome- becomes skeletal muscle
: dermatome- becomes dermis
What are the 8 things the neural crest forms?
dorsal root ganglion
post-ganglionic cells of ANS
Schwann cells (myelinated cells of nervous system)
Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
Meninges (pia and arachnoid)
Pancreatic islet cells
Craniofacial muscles, bone and connective tissuee
What does the hindbrain form?
What does the mylencephalon form?
What does the metencephalon form?
What does the midbrain form?
What does the mesencephalon form?
What does the forebrain form?
What does the diencephalon form?
thalamus region (thalamus and hypothalamus)
What does the telencephalon form?
What do trophic factors do? (basic)
Find the right chemical attractions between pre and post synaptic cells. If any part because damaged, connections won't be able to be made
function of the neurons not determined until connections are made
myelination must occur for neurons with long axons to be functional- myelination occurs in 4th fetal month till age 10ish
What is the main problem in Arnold Chiari Malformation Type 1?
herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the vertebral canal
: headache, nausea, the 4D's
What can Arnold Chiari Malformation Type 2 cause?
death from anacephaly- the cranial end doesn't close
malformation of brainstem and cerebellum
What is the main problem in spina bifida?
there is a neural tube defect
Describe Spina Bifida Occulata:
protrude through the bony defect, but the spinal cord is still completely functional
Describe Spina Bifida (Cystica) Meningocele:
meninges protrude through
may or may not have symptoms
Describe Spina Bifida (Cystica) Meningomylocele:
neural tissue with meninges protrudes through
causes abnormal growth and degree of lower extremity dysfunction
Describe Spina Bifida (Cystica) Myeloschis:
Malformed spinal cord is open to surface of the body
neural tube fails to close
no motor function below level of damage
What are 5 of the critical periods
Neural tube formation (3-4 wk utero)
: anacephaly, Arnold, Spina
Brain Enlargments (2-3 mth utero)
Cellular Proliferation (3-4 mth utero)
Neural Migration (3-5 mth utero)
: heterotopia, seizure
Organization (5 mth utero-childhood)
: mental retardation, trisomy 21, cerebral palsy