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A pupil whose behavioural, communicational intellectual and physical exceptionalities are such that a committee considers the pupil to need a placement in a special education program.
Special Education Program
Includes a plan containing specific objectives and an outline of educational services that meets the needs of the pupil with an exceptionality.
Special Education Services
Facilites and resources (support personnel and equipment) necessary for developing and implementing a special education program.
- a) inability to build or maintain relationships
- b) excessive fears or anxieties
- c) compulsive
- d) inability to learn
- Deaf and Hard of Hearing
- Language Impairment
- Speech Impairment
- Physical Disability
- Blind and Low Vision
- Mild Intellectual Disability
- Developmental Disability
Categories of Exceptionalities
The Cascade Model
- regular class with special support
- regular class with withdrawal (resource room)
- part-time special class
- full-time special class
- special school
- instruction in special setting
refers to the number of new cases identifies within a population over a specific period of time.
refers to the total number of cases of a disorder existing within a population at a particular place/time.
The Normal Curve and IQ
- 70- developmental disability
- 70-80 MID
- 80-85 below average
- 85-115 average intelligence
- 115-130 above average
- 130+ gifted
- Refers to how well an individual is able to meet- to adapt to demands made by his/her environment.
- Helps to determine the extent and effect of any intellectual and developmental disability and thus the program that will be provided.
Mild Intellectual Disability (MID) Characteristics
- Below average range to borderline cognitively
- Likely 2 grades behind
- Global deficits...external locus of control
Developmental Disability Characteristics
- Cognitive ability range below 70 IQ
- Medical or community assessment
- Occurs during developmental period
What can parents appeal ?
Bill 82, 1980
- universal access
- boards must have IPRCs
- parents must be included, right to appeal
- boards must have SEACs
- boards must have Special Education Plan
- boards to implement early and ongoing identification
Eaton v. Brant County Board
of Education – Summary
The issue in this case is whether a decision of the Ontario Special Education Tribunal confirming the placement of a disabled child in a special education class against the wishes of her parents violates her equality rights.
The Supreme Court ruled that the Board of Education’s removal of the child from an integrated classroom was in her best interests, and therefore did not contravene the Charter. While acknowledging the benefits of integrated schooling, the Court concluded that if special assistance is not available in integrated classrooms, students in need of such assistance are better off in special classes where it is available.
In contrast, the Women’s Court of Canada finds that the “best interests” defense is not consistent with equality. We hold that in rejecting the presumption that Emily Eaton had a right to be educated in an integrated classroom, with the assistance she needed in that setting, the Supreme Court showed more concern for the interests of able-bodied children than those with disabilities.
This is inconsistent with the Charter’s equality guarantee. We find that a constitutional presumption of integrated education is necessary for two reasons. First, it is required to counteract the historic legacy by which segregation has been a sign of inferior status. Secondly, it is necessary to place an onus on the state to make the integrated educational environment genuinely inclusive, to meet the diverse needs of all students.
- In short, substantive equality requires the fundamental transformation of the traditional
- mainstream classroom to ensure that the different supports that different children need are available.
Universal Design for Learning
- approach that is based on the architectural premise that improved access for people with handicapping conditions is improved access for all
- encourages teachers to take the needs of all their students, academic, social, intellectual and physical into account when planning for instruction
- consideration occurs at the outset of planning, rather than making adjustments after the planning is done
Differentiated Instruction (DI)
- an approach requiring teachers to begin where students are, not the front of the curriculum guide
- they accept and build upon the premise that learners differ in important ways
- teachers begin their planning with the needs of all students in mind and present lessons in a manner in which effectively captures the needs and abilities of all students
Accessing Special Education Services: Referral Process
- Step 1- identify a student who may need a special education program;
- Step 2- discuss the student with the special education resource teacher;
- Step 3- bring student to the attention of the in-school team (An IEP may be developed at this time);
- Step 4- when necessary, refer student to the attention of the IPRC;
- Step 5- adjust placement when necessary and implement IEP
September 1, 1998 Regulation 181/98
Identification and Placement of Exceptional Pupils
- Step 1- student is formally referred to an IPRC by the school’s principal;
- Step 2- IPRC obtains and considers educational assessment, may interview student, receives information from school and parent;
- Step 3- IPRC must consider all information and proposals for special education programs and services;
- Step 4- IPRC decides student is not exceptional OR IPRC identifies student as exceptional and decides on a placement; Step 5- student is placed according to IPRC decision;
- Review- student’s situation to be reviewed at least once every school year by the IPRC
- Step 1- school board convenes a three member Appeal Board to review IPRC’s decisions;
- Step 2- Appeal Board agrees with IPRC and recommends its decisions be implemented OR disagrees with IPRC and makes recommendations to school board about identification or placement; Step 3- school board considered recommendation and considers what action to take;
- Step 4- school board decision is implemented; final appeal stage is to Special Education Tribunal
Students with Behavioural Exceptionalities Misconceptions
- Youth violence has not increased since the mid-twentieth century
- Once a student is identified with an emotional/ behavioral disorder in the school system, it does not make it easier to get services in an education system across the country
- Developments in mental health science have not made identification and classification of behavioral disorders simpler and easier for educators
- Bullying is not an age-old, natural schoolyard phenomenon that students should have to deal with as part of growing up
- Behavioural disorders are both age and gender related
- Behavioural disorders are not manifested in patterns of aggression and frustration
- A behavioural disorder does not always indicate that the student is bright but frustrated
- Difficult behaviour is an external manifestation and often spontaneous and temporary
- A highly structured ordered and predictable environment is the most effective way to change an inappropriate behaviour
- Both the behaviour itself and the reasons why it is occurring are important to look at
- inability to sustain attention;
Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities - Misconceptions
- Developmental disability is not a condition like an illness
- An intellectual or developmental disability does not put a cap on learning
- The disabilities do not occur equally across class and gender
- Developmental and intellectual disabilities are not reflected in physical appearance
- No one environment is consistently and universally superior for students with intellectual and developmental problems
- A low IQ test score is not evidence of disability
- Students with intellectual or developmental disabilities are not always difficult/ compliant
Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Misconceptions
- ASDs are not a kind of mental illness
- ASDs are treatable Preoccupied, career oriented parents are not necessarily most at risk for causing ASDs
- ASDs are not the result of our socially disconnected urban culture
- ASDs cannot be caused by vaccinations
refer to the actual teaching supports and services that the student may require to successfully demonstrate learning. Accommodations should not change expectations to the curriculum grade levels.
- additional time
- oral test
- oral reports
- preferred seating
Modifications refer to changes made to curriculum expectations in order to meet the needs of the student. Modifications are made when the expectations are beyond the students level of ability. Modifications must be clearly acknowledged in the IEP.
- second language exemptions
- withdrawal for specific skills
- include student in same activity but individualize the expectations and materials
IPRC- Identification, Placement and Review Committee
SEAC- Special Education Advisory Committee
IEP- Individual Education Plan
UDL- Universal Design for Learning
DI- Differentiated Instruction
ADHD- Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
ASD- Autism Spectrum Disorder
DSM- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual