Bio: Internal Systems
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open circulatory system vs. closed circulatory system?
- open: blood is contained within a closed network of vessels
- closed: blood is not always contained
major components of blood?
55% plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells
whats a transfusion reaction?
a reaction that occurs when a blood type is rejected by the body during a blood transfusion
respiratory system tingz: nasal passages?
nostrils; where the air goes in; turbinates to increase natural pacemaker; has ciliated cells to make mucus
respiratory system tingz: importance of mucus in our nasal passage and lungs? (3things)
to moisten air, lubricate passageways and trap dust and dirt particles
respiratory system tingz: pharynx?
connects the nasal/oral cavity to the larynx/esophagus
respiratory system tingz: glottis?
the opening of the trachea
respiratory system tingz: larynx?
voice box; vocal chords vibrate to make sounds
respiratory system tingz: bronchi?
the two branches from the trachea going into each lung; ciliated mucus membrane
respiratory system tingz: bronchioles?
branches of the bronchi; end in alveoli
respiratory system tingz: alveoli?
where gas exchange takes place; the wall of each sac is 1 cell think to increase rate of diffusion
respiratory system tingz: lungs are covered by a flexible membrane called a?
trace the pathway of air through the respiratory system...
nasal/oral cavity, pharynx, glottis, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli!!!
importance of the respiratory system?
supplies oxygen to the body and rids carbon dioxide
how many lobes does each lung have/ what is the importance?
3 on the right, 2 on the left, to accomodate the heart
what is pleurisy?
when the pleura becomes enflamed
respiratory system tingz: diaphragm?
a strong wall of muscle sparating the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
respiratory system tingz: what does the diaphragm do while were breathing?
- when we inhale, the diaphragm contracts and moves down
- when we exhale, the diaphragm relaxes and moves up
respiratory system tingz: what two muscles control air pressure in your lungs?
intercostal muscles and diaphragm
respiratory system tingz: pressure/volume when inhaling vs pressure/volume when exhaling
- inhalation: air pressure in lungs is lower than outside, volume of air in lungs increases
- exhalation: air pressure in lungs is higher than outside, volume of air in lungs decreases
respiratory system tingz: bronchitis?
the bronchial tubes are inflamed; coughing up phlegm
respiratory system tingz: asthma?
long-term; airways unexpectedly and suddenly narrow; allergens, cold air, exercise, stress, etc.
respiratory system tingz: pneumonia?
inflammation of the lungs and buildup of fluid in the alveoli
respiratory system tingz: chronic bronchitis?
excessive mucus in the bronchi
tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, residual volume, expiratory reserve volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity tinggzzz
three ways to increase lung volume?
- cardiovascular activities
- breathing exercises
- pranayama (yoga)
- playing wind instruments
- high altitude training
respiratory system tingz: importance of the medulla oblongta?
controls the rate of breathing
respiratory system tingz:what cause an increase in the rate of breathing?
- increase in physical activity (build up of carbon dioxide within the body and greater need for oxygen)
- breathing in air of a higher concentration of carbon dioxide
circulatory system tingz: what are the 3 main circuits?
- cardiac, pulmonary, systemic
- cardiac: blood through the heart
- pulmonary: blood from the heart to the lungs to the heart
- systemic: blood to the body to the heart
circulatory system tingz: diastole vs systole?
- systole: 120 mmHg the contraction of the left ventricle forcing blood out of the heart
- diastole: 80mmHg lowest point immediately before another contraction
circulatory system tingz: whats a sphygmomanometer?
measures blood pressure
circulatory system tingz: arteries?
strong elastic thick walled vessels carrying blood away from the heart; no valves
circulatory system tingz: veins?
less elastic/ thinner walls than arteries; moves blood to heart; valves are present
circulatory system tingz: capillaries?
not very elastic; no valves; one cell thick- carries blood to the tissues
circulatory system tingz: trace the pathway of blood through the body!!
aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, inferior/superior vena cava
circulatory system tingz: trace the pathway of blood through the heart/lungs
inferior/superior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta (:
circulatory system tingz: how do you calculate cardiac output?
stroke volume x heart rate
list four functions of the circulatory system
transports oxygen, transports nutrients, fights infection, blood clotting at wounds
circulatory system tingz: hemoglobin?
what transfers oxygen; contains iron
circulatory system tingz: atherosclerosis?
fatty deposits called plaques form in the arteries, clogging and narrowing them reducing the amount of blood flow; parts may break off and travel through the blood stream until it blocks a smaller vessel; blood clots
circulatory system tingz: hemophilia?
the inability to form blood clots; they will continue bleeding
circulatory system tingz: angina?
temporary pain/tightness that starts in the chest; because of a shortness of oxygen and nutrients to the cardiac muscle
circulatory system tingz: heart murmur?
the improper closing of one of the heart valves; lub-dub-swoosh (semi-lunar valve) or lub-swoosh-dub (AV valve)
circulatory system tingz: ECG?
electrocardiogram; diagnoses heart disease;
circulatory system tingz: cardiac conduction system?
SA node (natural pace maker), AV node (gives the atria time to contract before the ventricles), AV bundle, purkinje fibres (they send impulses to the muscular walls of the ventricles causing them to contract)
circulatory system tingz: sickle cell?
sickle-shaped blood cells; more prone to clotting
circulatory system tingz: what is the LUBB DUBB?
- lub: closing of the tricuspid/biscuspid valves
- dub: closing of the pulmonary/aortic valves
circulatory system tingz: red blood cells?
transport oxygen/co2, erythrocytes, used for accident victims
circulatory system tingz: white blood cells?
fight infection, leukocytes, granulocytes engulf bacteria quickly, lymphocytes produce antibodies responding slowly, destroyed at the site of infection
circulatory system tingz: platelets?
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