exam 3.txt

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exam 3.txt
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  1. Dissociative disorders cause significant impairments to what ________________, ______________, and __________________.
    identy, memory, consciousness
  2. Name the four cognitive of the cognitive deficits caused by depersonalization disorders.
    attention, short-term memory, spatial reasoning, easily distracted.
  3. What is the difference between autism and asperger's if any?
    autism is the *impairment in social interactions* (relative to age): few to no friends, joint attention problems, and social awareness; *communication problems*: 1/3 never aquire speech, echolalia, conversational impairments; *restricted patterns of behaviors*, interests, and activities: maintenance of sameness, stereotyped and ritualistic behaviors; aspergers: significant social impairments, stereotyped behaviors (restricted and repetative), coordination problems, highly verbal, no severe delays in language and cognitive
  4. What is the five factor model of personality?
    openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
  5. What are the DSM personality disorder clusters?
    Cluster A: Odd or eccentric (�Wild�): Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal; Cluster B: Dramatic, emotional, erratic (�Weird�): Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic; Cluster C: Fearful or anxious (�Worried�): Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
  6. What is the difference between factitious disorders and malingering?
    • Malingering: Intentionally produced symptoms, Clear benefit, No precipitating stressful event, Impaired function
    • Factitious Disorder/Munchausen�s: Intentionally produced symptoms, No obvious benefit, Sick role?
  7. Coca-Cola used to contain _____________.
    cocaine
  8. Enkephalins and endorphins are natural opioids found in the __________________.
    body
  9. Which neurotransmitter creates the �pleasure pathway�?
    dopamine
  10. The term �schizophrenia� was introduced by_____________-
    Eugen Bleuler
  11. What is the most frequently used drug?
    marijuana
  12. Two types of �positive� symptoms for schizophrenia are________,________.
    delusions and hallucinations
  13. A child who has impairment in social interactions, communication problems and restricted patterns of behaviors is suffering from ______ disorder.
    autism
  14. Compare and differentiate between a histrionic and borderline personality disorder.
    Histrionic: overly dramatic, sensational, sexually provocative, impulsive, attentionseeking, appearance focused, impressionistic, vague superficial speech, common diagnosis in females; P: Provocative (or sexually seductive) behavior R: Relationships (considered more intimate than they are) A: Attention (uncomfortable when not the center of attention) I: Influenced easily S: Style of speech (impressionistic, lacks detail) E: Emotions (rapidly shifting and shallow) M: Made up (physical appearance used to draw attention to self) E: Emotions exaggerated (theatrical). borderline: patterns of instability--labile intense moods, turbulent relationships, impulsivity, fear of abandonment, self-mutilation, very poor self-image, self-mutilation, suicidal gestures; A: Abandonment M: Mood instability (marked reactivity of mood) S: Suicidal (or self-mutilating) behavior U: Unstable and intense relationships I: Impulsivity (in two potentially self-damaging areas) C: Control of anger I: Identity disturbance D: Dissociative (or paranoid) symptoms that are transient and stress-related
  15. What are the four ways your body tries to get rid of alcohol?
    tears, sweat, urine, throwing up
  16. Name the five subtypes of schizophrenia.
    Paranoid type, disorganized type, catatonic type, undifferentiated type, residual type
  17. What are the two treatments for ADHD and what does each treatment entail.
    Biological: using stimulants or other medications; behavioral and combined: reinforcement programs, parent training, social skills training, or combined treatments
  18. Why should a chronic alcoholic not go �cold turkey�?
    withdrawal delirium (delirium tremens): frightening hallucinations and body tremors, withdrawal from alcohol use can cause hand tremors, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, transient hallucinations, agitation, insomnia.
  19. In a auditory hallucinations researchers found that, the part of the brain most active during hallucinations was ___________.
    Broca�s area
  20. List 3 diagnostic criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive
  21. What is the appropriate age to diagnosed a child with ADHD and which children get more label as ADHD?
    age 7
  22. Differentiate between the Schizoid Personality Disorder and the Schizotypal Personality Disorder.
    schizoid: appear to neither enjoy nor desire relationships, limited range of emotions--appear cold and detached, appear unaffected by praise or criticism-unable or unwilling to express emotion. schizotypal: psychotic-like symptoms including majical thinking, ideas of reference, illusions, odd and or unusual behavior such as behavior and appearance, socially isolated, highly suspicious.
  23. What is the Wernike-Korsakoff Syndrome?
    chronic heavy alcohol use, thiamine deficiency, thalamic damage.
  24. What is the difference between Echolalia and Echopraxia?
    echolalia: automatic repetition of vocalizations made by another person, exopraxia is the automatic repetition of movements.
  25. What is the clinical description of Hypochondriasis?
    anxiety or fear of having a disease, high comorbidity with anxiety/mood disorders, focus on bodily symptoms, which are usually normal, mild or vague, theres little benefit from medical reassurance, strong disease conviction--misconceptions of symptoms, checking behaviors, high trait anxiety.
  26. What are the types of dissociative disorders?
    Depersonalization disorder, dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative trance disorder, dissociative identity disorder
  27. What is the clinical description depersonalization disorder?
    Feelings of unreality and detachment, severe/frightening, depersonalization, derealization, significant impairment, high comorbidities with anxiety and mood disorders
  28. What is the clinical description depersonalization disorder?
    Feelings of unreality and detachment, severe/frightening, depersonalization, derealization, significant impairment, high comorbidities with anxiety and mood disorders
  29. What is Dissociative amnesia?
    Psychogenic memory loss, generalized type, localized or selective type
  30. What is the clinical description of dissociative trance disorder?
    Dissociative symptoms, sudden personality changes, state is undesirable, cultural/religious variations
  31. What is the clinical description of dissociative identity disorder (DID)?
    Amnesia, dissociation of personality, adopt several new identities or �alters�: can be between 2-100, with the average of 15, each have unique characteristics, host, switch
  32. Name the category of drugs which is associated with these effects: Behavioral sedation, Alertness and elevated mood, Alter senses and perception, Euphoria and reduced pain
    hallucinogens
  33. What are the symptoms of substance- induced dementia?
    aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, executive function impairment
  34. Creutzfeld- Jacob Disease is linked to what?
    Mad cow disease
  35. What are the three central features and DSM symptom types of ADHD?
    inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive
  36. What are the six DSM classes of Dementia?
    dementia of Alzheimer's type, vascular dementia, dementia due to other general medical conditions, substance-induced persisting dementia, dementia due to multiple etiologies, dementia not otherwise specified.
  37. Who would be most likely to recover from a stroke?
    Left handed females
  38. If alcohol is a depressant why would depressed individuals self medicate with alcohol?
    its initial effect is an apparent stimulation--we generally experience a feeling of well-being, our inhibitions are reduced and we become more outgoing because what is initially depressed are the inhibititory centers in the brain.
  39. 2. Alice weighs 118 lbs and has had 2 shots of whiskey. Mike weighs 183 and has had 4 shots. Who has a greater blood alcohol content, and why.
    mike, more drinks and higher weight
  40. 3. Stacy is 17. She is extremely concerned with how her skin looks at all times, since she thinks her skin is hideous. She constantly goes to the beach to tan, she is always applying lotion on her face and she checks out her skin in every reflection she can including her metal knife at dinner. Stacy has a Disorder known as
    body dysmorphic disorder
  41. What is the name of the neuropepetide that plays a role in how we bond to others? (Chapter 14, pg 515, slide 14)
    oxytocin
  42. The inability to recognize and name objects is called what? (Chapter 15, pg 536, slide 34)
    agnosia
  43. Describe the personality disorders from cluster A.
    paranoid- S: Spouse fidelity suspected U: Unforgiving (bears grudges) S: Suspicious of others P: Perceives attacks (and reacts quickly)E: "Enemy or friend" (suspects associates, friends) C: Confiding in others feared T: Threats perceived in benign events: mistrust and suspicion: pervasive and unjustified, few meaningful relationships, volatile, tense, sensitive to criticism. schizoid-D: Detached (or flattened) affect I: Indifferent to criticism and praise S: Sexual experiences of little interest T: Tasks (activities) done solitarily A: Absence of close friends N: Neither desires nor enjoys close relations T: Takes pleasure in few activities : appear to neither enjoy nor desire relationships, limited range of emotions--appear cold and detached, appear unaffected by praise or criticism-unable or unwilling to express emotion. schizotypal- M: Magical thinking or odd beliefs E: Experiences unusual perceptions P: Paranoid ideation E: Eccentric behavior or appearance C: Constricted (or inappropriate) affect U: Unusual (odd) thinking and speech L: Lacks close friends I: Ideas of reference A: Anxiety in social situations R: Rule out psychotic disorders and pervasive developmental disorder: psychotic-like symptoms including majical thinking, ideas of reference, illusions, odd and or unusual behavior such as behavior and appearance, socially isolated, highly suspicious.
  44. Describe the personality disorders from cluster B.
    antisocial- C: Conformity to law lacking O: Obligations ignored R: Reckless disregard for safety of self or others R: Remorse lacking U: Underhanded (deceitful, lies, cons others) P: Planning insufficient (impulsive) T: Temper (irritable and aggressive): noncompliance with social norms, lacks a conscience, empathy, remorse, social predators-violate rights of others, irresponsible, impulsive, deceitful; Histrionic: overly dramatic, sensational, sexually provocative, impulsive, attentionseeking, appearance focused, impressionistic, vague superficial speech, common diagnosis in females; P: Provocative (or sexually seductive) behavior R: Relationships (considered more intimate than they are) A: Attention (uncomfortable when not the center of attention) I: Influenced easily S: Style of speech (impressionistic, lacks detail) E: Emotions (rapidly shifting and shallow) M: Made up (physical appearance used to draw attention to self) E: Emotions exaggerated (theatrical). borderline: patterns of instability--labile intense moods, turbulent relationships, impulsivity, fear of abandonment, self-mutilation, very poor self-image, self-mutilation, suicidal gestures; A: Abandonment M: Mood instability (marked reactivity of mood) S: Suicidal (or self-mutilating) behavior U: Unstable and intense relationships I: Impulsivity (in two potentially self-damaging areas) C: Control of anger I: Identity disturbance D: Dissociative (or paranoid) symptoms that are transient and stress-related; narcissistic: exaggerated and unreasonable sense of self-importance, require attention, lack sensitivity and compassion, sensitive to criticism, envious, arrogant, S: Special (believes he or she is special and unique) P: Preoccupied with fantasies (of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love) E: Entitlement C: Conceited (grandiose sense of self-importance) I: Interpersonal exploitation A: Arrogant (haughty) L: Lacks empathy
  45. Describe the personality disorders from cluster C.
    • avoidant: extreme sensitivity to opinions, avoid most relationships, interpersonal anxious, fearful or rejection, C: Certainty (of being liked required before willing to get involved with others) R: Rejection (or criticism) preoccupies one's thoughts in social situations I: Intimate relationships (restraint in intimate relationships due to fear of being shamed) N: New interpersonal relationships (is inhibited in) G: Gets around occupational activity (involving significant interpersonal contact) E: Embarrassment (potential) prevents new activity or taking personal risks S: Self viewed as unappealing, inept, or inferior;
    • dependent: rely on others for major and minor decisions, unreasonable fear of abandonment, clingy, submissive, timid, passive, feelings of inadequacy, sensitivity to criticism, high need for reassurance, R: Reassurance required for decisions E: Expressing disagreement difficult (due to fear of loss of support or approval) L: Life responsibilites (needs to have these assumed by others) I: Initiating projects difficult (due to lack of self-confidence) A: Alone (feels helpless and discomfort when alone) N: Nurturance (goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support) C: Companionship (another relationship) sought urgently when close relationship ends E: Exaggerated fears of being left to care for self; obsessive compulsive: fixation on doing things the right way, rigid, perfectionistic, orderly, preoccupation with details, poor interpersonal relationships, L: Loses point of activity (due to preoccupation with detail) A: Ability to complete tasks (compromised by perfectionism) W: Worthless objects (unable to discard)
    • F: Friendships (and leisure activities) excluded (due to a preoccupation with work) I: Inflexible, scrupulous, overconscientious (on ethics, values, or morality, not accounted for by religion or culture) R: Reluctant to delegate (unless others submit to exact guidelines) M: Miserly (toward self and others) S: Stubbornness (and rigidity)
  46. What are the 3 major characteristics of Autism?
    impairment in social interactions, communication problems, restricted patters of behaviors, interests, and activities
  47. Name and describe the sub-types of delirium.
    delirium due to a general medical condition, substance induced delirium, delirium due to multiple etiologies, delirium not otherwise specified
  48. Explain the phenomenon of Sundowners Syndrome.
    Sufferers experience periods of extreme agitation and confusion during the late afternoon or early evening hours, leading to irritability.
  49. Mental Retardation only considers (blank) when diagnosing a person. How is that found?
    IQ, standardized tests
  50. (a) (blank) is the inability to recognize familiar object (b) (blank) is the inability to recognize familiar faces
    agnosia; facial agnosia
  51. List the five main categories of substances. Briefly explain their effects and give one example for each. (Chapter 11, p.394, slide 4)
    • depressants: slow down CNS, alcohol
    • stimulants: increase alertness and energy, cocaine, nicotine, amphetamines, caffeine
    • opioids: activates endorphines and enkephalins, euphoria, drowsiness, slow breathing, opiates
    • hallucinogens: alter sensory perception, paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, mood swings, euphoria, marijuana
    • inhalants: effects similar to alcohol intoxication, spray paint, gasoline
  52. How do Amphetamines affect our Central Nervous System? Briefly Explain. (what other neurotransmitters are also involved) (Chapter 11, p.402, slide 11)
    significant agonist and reuptaking blocking effects of norepinephrine, dopamine, link with hallucinations and delusions
  53. According to Freudian psychodynamic view, list the four basic processes in the development of Conversion Disorder. (Chapter 6, p.183, slide 11)
    trauma or conflict experience, repression, conversion to pysical symptoms, attention and support
  54. The definition of Mental Retardation has three parts: 1) ___________, 2) __________ and 3) ____________. (Chapter 14, p.527, slide 18)
    below average intellectual functioning, adaptive problems (must be present in 2 areas of life for diagnosis), disorder of childhood
  55. Hallucinations and Delusions are __________ symptoms of schizophrenia while Avolation, Alogia, Anhedonia, and Affective flattening are ______________ symptoms of schizophrenia.
    positive, negative
  56. Which neurotransmitter attaches to its receptor, where chloride ions enter the cell and make it less sensitive to the effects of other neurotransmitters?
  57. What is Aphasia? What group of people does it occur among?
    language impairment, substance induced dementia
  58. Name the 5 Impulse-Control Disorders. Define each one.
    Intermittent explosive disorders, kleptomania, pathological gambling, and trichotillomania.
  59. List and describe the cognitive deficits related to Dementia of the Alzheimer�s Type.
    aphasia: language impairment, apraxia: damage to specific areas to cerebrum, loss of ability to execute purposeful movements--disorder of motor planning, agnosia: unable to recognize objects
  60. Define the Capgras and Cotard�s delusion syndromes.
    caapgras: delusion that someone they know has been replaced by an identical looking imposter. cotard: delusional belief that they are dead, do not exist, or have lost their blood or internal organs
  61. What is the main difference between hypochondriasis and illness phobia?
    • hypochondriasis: fear or anxiety of having a disease
    • illness phobia: endless thinking about disease or death from a disease, avoid media coverage about illnesses, or collect info obsessively about it, need constant reassurance from doctors that they arent sick
  62. When no physical effect found for pain or other symptoms, the diagnosis is usually:
    somatization disorder
  63. What is a somatoform disorder?
    A disorder that involves the preoccupation with health or appearance, physical complaints, and has no identifiable medical condition.
  64. Down syndrome occurs due to the
    mutation on the 21st chromosome
  65. What is the difference in clinical description between hypochodriasis and somatization disorder?
    Hypochondriasis is diagnosed when the patient is concerned or has anxiety about having a disease, and is concerned about every little bodily symptom, whether it be normal, mild, or vague. Somatization disorder is diagnosed when a patient is concerned about the bodily symptoms, rather than the actual meaning. They actually experience significant impairment and have a long history of physical complaints. They also consider their symptoms their identity. Somatization disorder is also rarer then hypochondriasis.
  66. What is the meaning of �la belle indifference� in context to somatoform disorders?
    An air of unconcern displayed by some patients toward their physical symptoms. It is believed the physical symptoms of somatoform disorders such as conversion disorder may relieve anxiety and result in secondary gains in the form of sympathy and attention given by others.
  67. What is the difference between primary and secondary gain in conversion disorder?
    Primary= �conversion� of stress to physical symptoms, Secomdary= attention and support from others
  68. Body Dysmorphic Disorder shares similar behaviors, causes and treatments with which other well-known disorder?
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  69. Dissociative Disorders show impairment in which area(s) of the mind?
    Identity. Memory, Consciousness
  70. What is the difference between Depersonalization and Derealization?
    Depersonalization is the significant impairment of detachment between the individual and his or her sense of self, and is internal. Derealization is the significant impairment of detachment between the person and his or her environment, and is external. Often, the world seems strange or unreal.
  71. Describe 2 causes of Dissociative Identity Disorder, and define the Auto Hynotic model.
    One cause is severe trauma or stress, especially in childhood. Another cause is the highly suggestible nature of the mind, which can be supported by the auto hypnotic model, which states that traumatized individuals use their innate hypnotic abilities to induce �self-hypnosis� as a defense mechanism in order to cope with a traumatic event.
  72. The central features and DSM-IV Symptom types of Attention Deficit Disorder are
    hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness
  73. Define a pervasive development disorder and give 2 examples.
    A pervasive development disorder usually manifests itself in infancy, early childhood, or adolescence and causes significant impairment across the lifespan. Two examples include autistic disorder and Asperger�s syndrome. (austistic disorder usually impairs an individual more than Asperger�s due to early language development)
  74. The _______ is larger at birth in individuals with autistic disorder, with increased _______ and neuronal damage. ________ receptor genes also play a role, which control bonding and social memory.
    Amygdala, cortisol, oxytocin
  75. Identify and briefly describe the IQ levels of mental retardation.
    Mild- IQ 50 or 55-70, Moderate- 35-40 to 50-55, Severe- 20-25 to 35-40, Profound- below 20-25
  76. What is an example of a �designer drug�?
    mdma (ecstacy), and methamphetamines
  77. What is the difference between somatization disorder and hypochondriasis?
    • somatization: Long history of physical complaints, significant impairment, concern about symptoms, not meaning
    • hypochondriasis: afraid of having a disease, focus on bodily symptoms
  78. Larry left to home to go work on Monday and disappeared. Three months later, he was found in a Miami hospital unable to remember the past three months. Larry most likely has what?
    delirium
  79. What are the three significant impairments of Dissociative disorders?
    identity, memory, consciousness
  80. What are some of the Psychological and Social causes of autism?
    historical views: bad parenting, lack of self-awareness, limited self concept, behavioral correlates: echolalia, self injury
  81. What is the dopamine hypothesis? How can we relate it to the structure of a schizophrenic�s brain?
    it is a model attributing symptoms of schizophrenia to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction.
  82. List four impairments of Alzheimer�s disease.
    Aphasia, Apraxia, Agnosia, Executive function impairments
  83. Where are personality disorders coded?
    Axis 2
  84. Whats the differences in the treatment of substance related disorders between agonist substation and antagonist drugs?
    Agonists: Increase schizophrenic-like behavior, Antagonists: Reduce schizophrenic-like behavior
  85. Amy is concerned with back pain and recent headaches and lists the symptoms to her doctor, more concerned with the symptoms themselves and not what they mean. She is suffering from what somatoform disorder?
    somatization
  86. How did Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler contribute to the history and definition of Schizophrenia, respectively?
    Kraeplin: Combination of symptoms, distinction of schizophrenia from bipolar, bleuler: Associative splitting and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia
  87. What is used to treat ADHD - depressants or stimulants?
    stimulants
  88. What is the maximum IQ you can have to be considered mental retarded?
    70
  89. What is conversion and malingering?
    malingering: intetionally produced symptoms for a clear benefit, conversion: physical malfunctioning in sensory-motor areas but lacks physical or organic pathology
  90. A person who displays a long-standing pattern of lack of moral concern is likely to be diagnosed with _______________. A person who displays a long-standing pattern of suspiciousness and lack of trust in others is likely to be diagnosed with __________________. A person who displays a long-standing pattern of preoccupation with receiving attention is likely to be diagnosed with _______________.
    antisocial; paranoid personalily disorder; narcassistic
  91. What part of the brain is affiliated with dopamine?
    Hypothalmus
  92. From the story that we heard in class, Marodith was experiencing which type of somatoform disorder?
    Hypochondriasis disorder
  93. For children with ADHD which of the following is true?
    Prefrontal cortex develops by age 7
  94. What are the 2 differential diagnoses for conversion disorder? (lecture 12, slide 13, page 180)
    Answer: malingering and facticious disorder/ Munchausen's
  95. What is meant by "positive" and "negative" symptoms? (pages 470 and 472, lecture 14 slides 4-5)
    Answer: Positive indicates an added symptom, such as delusions and hallucinations, while negative indicates lacking a quality what occurs in avolution, which is the inability to initiate or persist in activities, algoia, which is the absence of speech, anhedonia, which is lacking pleasure in activities normally considered pleasurable, and affective flattening, or lacking emotional reactions.
  96. What are the 3 classes of cognitive disorders? (lecture 13, slide 26)
    Answer: delirium, dementia, amnestic disorders

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