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2011-01-24 03:15:03

ch 2 self study review
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  1. list four principles of pharmacology that the oral health professional must understand in order to provide information on drugs effects.
    • knowing how the drug works
    • potential adverse effects
    • oral health education info related to drug effects
    • the risks of taking a drug
  2. pharmacodynamics
    a drugs mechanism of action
  3. pharmacokinetics
    movement of a drug through the body
  4. pharmacotherapeutic variables
    potential adverse effects when the drug is taken
  5. describe the steps a drug follows after being delievered to body cells?
    • complex formation
    • drug receptor interaction
    • mechanism of action
  6. list seven features of receptors
    • cellular macromolecules
    • location on the cell surface or within the cell
    • hundreds of different receptors on a single cell
    • complementary fit between drug and receptor
    • electrochemical charge
    • hydrophilic or hydrophobic
    • only one drug molecule can occupy a receptor at one time
  7. what types of bonds are weak and easily reversed
    ionic bonds
  8. what type of bonds are weaker than ionic
    hydrogen bonds
  9. what is the strongest type of bond and often irreversible
    covalent bonds
  10. what is the weak attractive force between some drugs and their receptors
    van der Waals forces
  11. what are the most common type of drug-receptor complexes
    ionic and hydrogen
  12. define the roles of affinity and intrinsic activity in drug action
    affinity is the attractive force that binds drugs to receptors and the intrinsic activity is the ability of an agonist to interact with a receptor and initiate a response
  13. what is related to potency?
    affinity (drugs with good affinity have greater potency)
  14. what is the difference in the effect of a weak agonist when compared to a partial agonist?
    • weak agonist-more of the drug is needed to produce the desired effect of a strong agonist
    • partial agonist-never reaches the effect of a strong agonist no matter how much drug is gen it has the affinity bu has low intrinsic activity
  15. describe the relationship of efficacy and the ceiling dose concept
    efficacy is the maximum response produced by a drug more doses wouldn't produce more of an effect this is the ceiling dose (drug has hit the ceiling and cannot go further)
  16. compare the ceiling dose to the threshold dose
    • ceiling dose is when the maximum effect of a drug is reached and more drugs would not produce greater effect
    • threshold dose is when the lowest dose of a drug will produce a measurable response
  17. ED50
    median effective dose- dose of drug required to produce a desired response in 50% of individuals within the same population
  18. LD50
    median lethal dose- if death is measured end point of the ED50
  19. what is the therapeutic index?
    TI is the ratio of the LD50 and the ED50, it is the margin of safety of a drug
  20. what is the significance of a high TI
    the higher the TI the safer the drug
  21. describe the stages a drug goes through from the time of administration to the elimination of the drug (5)
    • drug absorption
    • distribution in the body
    • distribution to site of action
    • metabolism of drug
    • excretion of drug
  22. from where in the GI tract are most drugs absorbed?
  23. what is the most predictable ROA?
  24. which enzyme system is the primary pathway for drug metabolism
    hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450
  25. in which organ are the most drugs excreted and what is the primary area of the organ where this occurs
    • Kidney
    • Glomeruli
  26. define a drug's half life
    time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to be decreased by 50%, it takes 4 half lives to eliminate a drug from the body