Geo Module 1
Card Set Information
Geo Module 1
Globalization & Diversity, Global Warming and Climate Change, North America
What are multi-national corporations?
These are companies with headquarters all over the world
What is globalization?
This is the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through the converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change
What is Hybridization (or syncretism)?
Occurs when forms of American popular culture spreads abroad and melds into other local cultures.
What is the
UN's providing of representation to all countries
International agreements that promote global trade and cultural exchange
What are some environmental concerns of globalization?
Transnational corporations create environmental problems that disrupt ecosystems
Native peoples may lose resource base
Globalization aggravates world environmental problems (climate change, pollution of air & water, deforestation)
What may help environmental concerns of globalization?
International treaties between countries.
State the social dimensions of globalization and their downfalls
Increased international migration
What are some advantages of globalization?
logical expression of capitalism
removes trade barriers, increasing efficiency
spreads new technology and ideas
free flow of capital increases global economic wealth
world's poorer countries will catch up
What are disadvantages of globalization used by critics?
today's developed countries did not use free-market economics to foster their development
Globalization creates greater inequalities
promotes free-market, export-oriented economies, at expense of local indigenous economies
spreads undesirable things (disease, crime, harmful plants and animals)
How do they measure the amount of inequality within a country?
Use GINI index (GINI coefficients)
What is the middle position of globalization?
globalization is unavoidable
even anti-globalization people use internet (which is globalized) to oppose globalization
strong governments, groups, and organizations can help manage globalization
Where is 90% of the population growth in the world coming from?
developing regions(Africa, Latin America, South Asia, East Asia)
annual growthrate for a country or region as a percentageincrease; world RNI is 1.2% per year
Rate of Natural Increase (RNI):
total number ofbirths divided by the total population; worldCBR is 21 per 1,000
Crude Birth Rate (CBR):
otal number of deaths divided by the total population; worldCDR is 9 per 1,000
Crude Death Rate (CDR):
the average numberof children born by a statistically averagewoman (world average is 2.7; for Europe it’s1.4; for Africa it’s 5.1)
Total Fertility Rate (TFR):
Average length of life; worldaverage is 67; for Africa it’s 52; for Japan it’s 82
What shows the gender and percentage ofthe population in each age group
negative conditions that drive people from a location
favorable conditions at a destination thatattract people
What connects migrants from their origins to their destinations? (family, friends, etc.)
networks of people
What are the focal points of the modern globalizing world?
percentage of a country’s peoplewho live in cities
Illegal developments of makeshifthousing
What happens when urban population grows faster thanprovision of infrastructure
This is LEARNED (not innate), is shared (notindividual) behavior, and includes both abstract(language, religion) and material elements (architecture,technology)
active promotion of one’s culturalsystem over another
Cultural imperialism (acculturation)
the process of defending a culturalsystem against offensive cultural expression while at thesame time actively promoting local or national values
the blending ofelements of culture to form a new culture
Cultural syncretism or hybridization:
when an immigrant adopts the culture of his/her destination
a distinctive form of a languageassociated with a specific region (e.g.,American and British English)
a third language that isadopted by people from different culturalgroups within a country who cannot speakeach other’s language (e.g., Swahili in Africa,or English in India)
Is there more diversity (as far as languages) in the old world or the new world?
attempts to appeal toall people regardless of location or culture(examples: Christianity with 2 billion, Islam with 1.2billion, Buddhism)
identified closely with a specificethnic group; does not actively seek converts(examples: Judaism, Hinduism with 850 million in India)
exists when people considerthemselves to be non-religious or outrightatheistic (about 1 billion)
the differences between asuperpower’s military technology and strategy and thelower level technology and decentralized guerillatactics used by Al Qaeda and the Taliban
Asymmetrical warfare: the differences between a superpower’s military
term that describes the close linkbetween geography and political activity
a political unit with territorial boundariesrecognized by other countries and internallygoverned by an organizational structure
a large group of people who share many culturalelements (e.g.: language, religion, cultural identity) andview themselves as a single political community
a relatively homogenous cultural group withits own fully independent political territory (e.g.: Japan,France); Kurds are a nation without a state
Largest Nation Without a State
ultural and political forces actingto weaken or divide an existing state
Forces that promote political unityand reinforce the state structure
formal establishment of rule over a foreignpopulation
the process of a colony’s gaining (orregaining) control over its territory and establishing aseparate independent government
U.S., Canada, western Europe,and Japan make up the economic core in the northernhemisphere, while most areas to the south make up aless-developed periphery...This is an example of the:
qualitative and quantitative measuresindicating structural changes (getting “better”)
increase in the size of a system (getting bigger)
the value of all final goodsand services produced within a country plus net incomefrom abroad
Gross National Income (GNI):
obtained by dividing the GNI by acountry’s population
GNI per capita
number of childrenwho die per 1,000 persons; related toavailability of food, basic healthcare
Mortality rate under 5 years:
percentage of a society’smales and females who can read; related toeconomic development, birthrates
Adult literacy rates:
Discussion of each region includes what 5 themes?
Population and Settlement
Cultural Coherence and Diversity
Economic and Social Development Geographies
short-term, day-to-dayexpression of atmospheric processes
long-term, average conditions–At least 30 years of daily weatherdata (temperatures and precipitation)
boundaries drawnaround areas with similar averageclimate conditions
provide average high and lowtemperatures and precipitation for everymonth in a year
On Climographs, what describes:
Average high temperature
Average low temperature
Average high temperature
Average low temperature
(human caused)pollutants increasethe greenhouseeffect.
makes up more than 50% ofanthropogenic greenhouse gases; comes mainly fromburning fossil fuels
Carbon Dioxide (CO2):
about 25% of humangeneratedgreenhouse gases; come mainly from aerosolsprays, refrigeration, & air conditioning
about 15%; caused by burning ofvegetation, by-products of cattle & sheep digestion,leaking natural gas pipelines, and refineries
; caused by agriculturalchemical fertilizers
Nitrous oxide (N2O):
First international agreement on global warming (167countries)
Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (1992)
38 industrialized countries agreed to reduce theiremissions of greenhouse gases to below 1990 levels
Kyoto Protocol (December 1997)
When did the Kyoto Protocol become international law?
an assemblage of local plants andanimals covering a large area (e.g., tropicalrainforest or grassland)
areas that receive under 10 inches of rainfall a year
North American grassland
shorter, less dense grassland found in Russia andSouthwest Asia
the spread of desert-like conditions
Large tracts of forests found in middle and highlatitudes (nearer the poles)
What must happen by 2025 to keep pace with expected human population growth rates?
World food production must double
migrants seeking amenities are called:
Urban land uses organizedin rings around the Central Business District
Concentric Zone Model:
New suburbswith a mix of retail, office complexes &entertainment
Urban realms model or Edge Cities:
Movement of wealthier people to deteriorated innercityareas; may displace low income residents
Similar to edge cities; suburbs becoming full-serviceurban centers with retail, business, education, jobs,etc.
Rectangularsurvey system introduced in 1785 in U.S. forunincorporated areas; similar system in Canada
Township-and-range survey system:
group of people with a commonbackground & history identify with one another(often as a minority group in larger society);both Canada & U.S. have many minorities
the process in whichimmigrants are absorbed by the larger hostsociety
those that allocate considerablepower below the national level
those with centralized power atnational level
how well regions are linked together bytransportation and communication
the evolution of the nation’s laborforce from primary sector activities to secondary, tertiary andquaternary activities
the varied influences that explain whyan economic activity is located where it is