Geo Module 1

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Geo Module 1
2011-02-09 01:27:03
Geo Module

Globalization & Diversity, Global Warming and Climate Change, North America
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  1. What are multi-national corporations?
    These are companies with headquarters all over the world
  2. What is globalization?
    This is the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through the converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change
  3. What is Hybridization (or syncretism)?
    Occurs when forms of American popular culture spreads abroad and melds into other local cultures.
  4. What is the Geopolitical Component of globalization?
    • UN's providing of representation to all countries
    • International agreements that promote global trade and cultural exchange
  5. What are some environmental concerns of globalization?
    • Transnational corporations create environmental problems that disrupt ecosystems
    • Native peoples may lose resource base
    • Globalization aggravates world environmental problems (climate change, pollution of air & water, deforestation)
  6. What may help environmental concerns of globalization?
    International treaties between countries.
  7. State the social dimensions of globalization and their downfalls
    • Increased international migration
    • The bad:
    • Terrorism
    • Drugs
    • Pornography
    • Gambling
  8. What are some advantages of globalization?
    • logical expression of capitalism
    • removes trade barriers, increasing efficiency
    • spreads new technology and ideas
    • free flow of capital increases global economic wealth
    • world's poorer countries will catch up
  9. What are disadvantages of globalization used by critics?
    • today's developed countries did not use free-market economics to foster their development
    • Globalization creates greater inequalities
    • promotes free-market, export-oriented economies, at expense of local indigenous economies
    • spreads undesirable things (disease, crime, harmful plants and animals)
  10. How do they measure the amount of inequality within a country?
    Use GINI index (GINI coefficients)
  11. What is the middle position of globalization?
    • globalization is unavoidable
    • even anti-globalization people use internet (which is globalized) to oppose globalization
    • strong governments, groups, and organizations can help manage globalization
  12. Where is 90% of the population growth in the world coming from?
    developing regions(Africa, Latin America, South Asia, East Asia)
  13. annual growthrate for a country or region as a percentageincrease; world RNI is 1.2% per year
    Rate of Natural Increase (RNI):
  14. total number ofbirths divided by the total population; worldCBR is 21 per 1,000
    Crude Birth Rate (CBR):
  15. otal number of deaths divided by the total population; worldCDR is 9 per 1,000
    Crude Death Rate (CDR):
  16. the average numberof children born by a statistically averagewoman (world average is 2.7; for Europe it’s1.4; for Africa it’s 5.1)
    Total Fertility Rate (TFR):
  17. Average length of life; worldaverage is 67; for Africa it’s 52; for Japan it’s 82
    Life expectancy
  18. What shows the gender and percentage ofthe population in each age group
    Population pyramids
  19. negative conditions that drive people from a location
    Push factors
  20. favorable conditions at a destination thatattract people
    Pull factors:
  21. What connects migrants from their origins to their destinations? (family, friends, etc.)
    networks of people
  22. What are the focal points of the modern globalizing world?
  23. percentage of a country’s peoplewho live in cities
    Urbanized population:
  24. Illegal developments of makeshifthousing
    Squatter settlements:
  25. What happens when urban population grows faster thanprovision of infrastructure
  26. This is LEARNED (not innate), is shared (notindividual) behavior, and includes both abstract(language, religion) and material elements (architecture,technology)
  27. active promotion of one’s culturalsystem over another
    Cultural imperialism (acculturation)
  28. the process of defending a culturalsystem against offensive cultural expression while at thesame time actively promoting local or national values
    Cultural nationalism:
  29. the blending ofelements of culture to form a new culture
    Cultural syncretism or hybridization:
  30. when an immigrant adopts the culture of his/her destination
    Cultural Assimilation:
  31. a distinctive form of a languageassociated with a specific region (e.g.,American and British English)
  32. a third language that isadopted by people from different culturalgroups within a country who cannot speakeach other’s language (e.g., Swahili in Africa,or English in India)
    Lingua franca:
  33. Is there more diversity (as far as languages) in the old world or the new world?
    Old word
  34. attempts to appeal toall people regardless of location or culture(examples: Christianity with 2 billion, Islam with 1.2billion, Buddhism)
    Universalizing religion:
  35. identified closely with a specificethnic group; does not actively seek converts(examples: Judaism, Hinduism with 850 million in India)
    Ethnic religion:
  36. exists when people considerthemselves to be non-religious or outrightatheistic (about 1 billion)
  37. the differences between asuperpower’s military technology and strategy and thelower level technology and decentralized guerillatactics used by Al Qaeda and the Taliban
    Asymmetrical warfare: the differences between a superpower’s military
  38. term that describes the close linkbetween geography and political activity
  39. a political unit with territorial boundariesrecognized by other countries and internallygoverned by an organizational structure
  40. a large group of people who share many culturalelements (e.g.: language, religion, cultural identity) andview themselves as a single political community
  41. a relatively homogenous cultural group withits own fully independent political territory (e.g.: Japan,France); Kurds are a nation without a state
  42. Largest Nation Without a State
  43. ultural and political forces actingto weaken or divide an existing state
    Centrifugal forces:
  44. Forces that promote political unityand reinforce the state structure
    Centripetal forces:
  45. formal establishment of rule over a foreignpopulation
  46. the process of a colony’s gaining (orregaining) control over its territory and establishing aseparate independent government
  47. U.S., Canada, western Europe,and Japan make up the economic core in the northernhemisphere, while most areas to the south make up aless-developed periphery...This is an example of the:
    Core-periphery model
  48. qualitative and quantitative measuresindicating structural changes (getting “better”)
  49. increase in the size of a system (getting bigger)
  50. the value of all final goodsand services produced within a country plus net incomefrom abroad
    Gross National Income (GNI):
  51. obtained by dividing the GNI by acountry’s population
    GNI per capita
  52. number of childrenwho die per 1,000 persons; related toavailability of food, basic healthcare
    Mortality rate under 5 years:
  53. percentage of a society’smales and females who can read; related toeconomic development, birthrates
    Adult literacy rates:
  54. Discussion of each region includes what 5 themes?
    • Environmental Geography
    • Population and Settlement
    • Cultural Coherence and Diversity
    • Geopolitical Framework
    • Economic and Social Development Geographies
  55. short-term, day-to-dayexpression of atmospheric processes
  56. long-term, average conditions–At least 30 years of daily weatherdata (temperatures and precipitation)
  57. boundaries drawnaround areas with similar averageclimate conditions
    Climate regions:
  58. provide average high and lowtemperatures and precipitation for everymonth in a year
  59. On Climographs, what describes:
    Average high temperature
    Average low temperature
    Average precipitation
    • Average high temperature: upper line
    • Average low temperature: lower line
    • Average precipitation: bars
  60. (human caused)pollutants increasethe greenhouseeffect.
  61. makes up more than 50% ofanthropogenic greenhouse gases; comes mainly fromburning fossil fuels
    Carbon Dioxide (CO2):
  62. about 25% of humangeneratedgreenhouse gases; come mainly from aerosolsprays, refrigeration, & air conditioning
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs):
  63. about 15%; caused by burning ofvegetation, by-products of cattle & sheep digestion,leaking natural gas pipelines, and refineries
    Methane (CH4):
  64. ; caused by agriculturalchemical fertilizers
    Nitrous oxide (N2O):
  65. First international agreement on global warming (167countries)
    Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (1992)
  66. 38 industrialized countries agreed to reduce theiremissions of greenhouse gases to below 1990 levels
    Kyoto Protocol (December 1997)
  67. When did the Kyoto Protocol become international law?
  68. an assemblage of local plants andanimals covering a large area (e.g., tropicalrainforest or grassland)
  69. areas that receive under 10 inches of rainfall a year
  70. North American grassland
  71. shorter, less dense grassland found in Russia andSouthwest Asia
  72. the spread of desert-like conditions
  73. Large tracts of forests found in middle and highlatitudes (nearer the poles)
    Temperate forests
  74. What must happen by 2025 to keep pace with expected human population growth rates?
    World food production must double
  75. migrants seeking amenities are called:
    lifestyle migrants
  76. Urban land uses organizedin rings around the Central Business District
    Concentric Zone Model:
  77. New suburbswith a mix of retail, office complexes &entertainment
    Urban realms model or Edge Cities:
  78. Movement of wealthier people to deteriorated innercityareas; may displace low income residents
  79. Similar to edge cities; suburbs becoming full-serviceurban centers with retail, business, education, jobs,etc.
    Suburban downtowns:
  80. Rectangularsurvey system introduced in 1785 in U.S. forunincorporated areas; similar system in Canada
    Township-and-range survey system:
  81. group of people with a commonbackground & history identify with one another(often as a minority group in larger society);both Canada & U.S. have many minorities
  82. the process in whichimmigrants are absorbed by the larger hostsociety
    Cultural assimilation
  83. those that allocate considerablepower below the national level
    Federal states:
  84. those with centralized power atnational level
    Unitary states:
  85. how well regions are linked together bytransportation and communication
  86. the evolution of the nation’s laborforce from primary sector activities to secondary, tertiary andquaternary activities
    Sectoral transformation:
  87. the varied influences that explain whyan economic activity is located where it is
    Location factors: