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Operation performed with crude stone instruments and consisted of chipping away one area of the skull in the shape of a circle until the skull was cut through.
Hippocrates classified all mental disorders into 3 categories
Mania, melancholia, and phrenitis(brain fever)
Maher and Maher (1994) best known for explaining personality or temperament
- Doctrine of the four humors combined with the four elements
- Earth, wind, water, and air
- blood(sanguis), phlehm, bile (choler), and black bile (melancholer)
- Made provision for mental cases to be cared for in the community
- Viewed psych phenomena as responses of the whole organism, reflecting its internal state and natural appetites
- Treatment included a provision for "hospital"care
Aristotle who wrote extensively on mental disorders
Descriptions of the consciousness, held the view that 'thinking; as directed would eliminate pain
- Made a number of original contributions concerning the anatomy of the nervous system
- Divided the causes of psychological disorders into physical and mental categories
Based his views of physical and mental disorders on clinical observations, and he implicated organ pathologies as primary causes. Also believed that stressful psych conditions could cause organ pathologies, and his treatments included both drugs and regaining of emotional balance
First mental hospital was established in
Baghdad in A.D 792, patients received humane treatment
Avicenna from Arabia
"prince of physicians" author of the Canon of Medicine. Frequently reffered to hysteria, elipsy, manic reactions, and melancholia.
Last half of the Middle Ages in Europe- Mass Maddness
the widespread occurrence of group behavior disorders that were apparently cases of hysteria.
Tarantism or in Germany known as Saint Vitus's Dance
Disorder in Italy that included and uncontrollable impulse to dance that was often attributed to the bite of the southern European tarantula or wolf spider
Condition in which people believed themselves to be possessed by wolves and imitated their behavior.
Paracelsus, a Swiss physician
- Insisted that the dancing mania was not a possession but a form of disease
- Postulated a conflict between the instinctual and spiritual natures of human beings, formulated the idea of psychic causes for mental illness, and advocated treatment by "bodily magnetism" (hypnosis).
- Rejected demonology, but believed in astral influences (the moon had supernatural influence over the brain).
- Book On the Deceits of the Demons that contained step by step rebuttal of the Malleus Malefucarum.
- One of the first physicians to specialize in mental disorders, and reputation as the founder of modern psychopathology.
16th Century on, sanctuaries or places of refuge meant solely for the care of the mentally ill. First established was in Spain in 1409 the Valencia Mental hospital.
Pinel's Experiment in La Bicetre in paris
Removed the chains, sunny rooms, patients were able to exercise, and kindness was extended to patients. Had amazing effect.
Tuke establishing the York Retreat
A quaker retreat continued to provide humane mental health treatment for over 200 years
The Lunacy Inquiry Act 1842
Included the requirement of effective inspection of asylums and houses every four months to ensure proper diet and the elimination of the use of restraints
- Founder of American psychiatry and also one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Pennsylvania Hospital in 1783, encouraged more humane treatments of mentally ill
- Wrote the first systematic treastie on psychiaty in MAerican, Medical Inquiries and observations upon diseases of the Mind.
- His medical theory was tainted with astrology
- Invented the tranquilizing chair
a wide-ranging method of treatment that focuses on a patient's social, individual, and occupational needs. Moral management in asylums emphasized the patients's moral and spiritual development and the rehabilitation of their character rather than their physical or mental disorders.
Mental Hygiene Movement
Advocated a methods of treatment that focused almost exclusively on the physical well-being of hospitalized mental patients. Comfort levels improved but no help for their mental problems so condemned to helplessness.
Carried on a zealious campaign between 1841 and 1881 that aroused people and legislators to do something about the inhuman treatment accorded the mentally ill. Established 32 mental hospitals
First mental health facility for treating mntally disordered war casualties was opened by the:
Confederate Army in the American Civil War
During WW1, psychiatrists worked with the military adminstration,
conducting research and training doctors to detect mental health problems that could interfere with performance of duty
Medical professionals or "alienists" in the 19th century-
- had relatively inconsequential role in the care of the insane and the management of the asylums of the day.
- They used treatments such as : drugging, bleeding, purging
By 1940 the public housed over - patients, roughly - percent of whom resided in large state-funded hospitals:the remainder in private hospitals
400,000 and 90
Community Health Services Act of 1963
helped to create a far-reaching set of programs to develop outpatient psychiatric clinic, inpatient facilities in general hospitals, and community consultation and rehabilitation programs.
Large number of psychiatric hospitals were closed, and there was a significant reduction in state and county mental hospital populations
A major biomedical breathrough came with the discovery of the organic factors underlying
general paresis- syphilis of the brain
Emil Kraepelin not only emphasized the importance of brain pathology in mental disorders but also made several related contributions that helped establish this viewpoint. The more important contribution was his:
system of classification of mental disorders,which became the forerunner of todays DSM-IV-TR
Developed a comprehensive theory of psychopathology that emphasized the innder dynamics of unconscious motives(psychodynamics) that are the heart of the psychoanalytic perspective
- Methods Freud used to study/treat his patients
- Trace history of it to hypnosis
Mesmer believed that:
the planets affect a universal magnetic fluid in the body, the distribution of which determined health or disease
Clearly had in influence on psychology and hypnosis for many years and came to be influential in spiritual movements such as Christian Science in the 19th century.
Physicians who followed the Nancy School view:
- The phenomena observed in hysteria could be produced in normal subjects by means of hypnosis
- The same symptoms also could be removed by means of hypnosis
- Thus it seemed likely that hysterial was a sort of self-hypnosis.
Patients that usually displayed considerable emotion and, on awakening from their hypnotic states, felt and emotional release
The portion of the mind that contains experiences of which a person is unaware-and with the belief that processes outsife of a person's awareness can play an important role in determining behavior
Free association, Dream analysis
- Involved patients talking freely about themselves, thereby providing info about their feelings,motives etc
- Involved having patients record and describe their dreams.
Witmer: was considered to be the founder of clinical psychology
focused on the problems of mentally deficient children in terms of both research and therapy.
- Was first to view juvenile delinquency as a symptom of urbanization, not as a result of inner psych problems.
- Was among the first to recognize a new area of causation-environmental, or sociocultural, factors.
The behavioral perspective
- The role of learning in human behavior
- study of directly observable behavior and the stimuli and reinforcing conditions that "control" it
- Form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditional stimulus that naturally elicits an unconditional behavior
- after repeated pairings the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response
Dogs would gradually begin to salivate in response to a nonfood stimulus, bell, after the stimulus had been regularly accompanied by food
John B. Watson
- Challenged psychologists by suggesting that abnormal behavior was the product of unfortunate inadvertent earlier conditioning and could be modified through reconditioning
- Emphasis on the role of the social environment in conditioning personality development and behavior
- Throndike and Skinner
- Consequences of behavior influence behavior