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What are the three major uses of vitamins? (CAS)
- 1) coenzymes
- 2) Antioxidants
- 3) signaling molecules
When are the three times your body has an increased demand for vitamins? PAS
- 1) Pregnancy
- 2) Alcohol
- 3) Stress
What is the active form of Thiamine?
What vitamins can be dangerous if ingested too often or too much at a time? (8)
vitamin B 6, niacin, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, D, E, K
What are the four uses for Thaimine as a coenzyme?
- Transketolase (TK) reaction (HMP shunt)
- alpha-ketoglutarate dehydro (TCA cycle)
- Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase
What is the ultimate result of Thiamine deficiency?
Lack of ATP production = cell death and lack of function
What is a major disease caused by Thaimine deficiency?
- ***2 types Dry and Wet
What are dry and wet beriberi?
- ***Come from Thiamine deficiency
- Dry: peripheral neuropathy
- Wet: Cardiovascular symptoms
Where is Thiamine deficiency rare/not rare and why?
- Rare: Western Countries due to fortified grains
- Not rare: East Asia due to milled rice
What type of neuropathy is cerebral beriberi?
What are the two types of cerebral beriberi and their symptoms?
- 1) Wernicke's encephalopathy: Gait, stance, confusion
- 2) Korsakoff's psychosis: memory loss, amnesia
Why do you not want to treat a Thiamine deficient patient with glucose?
- They have PDHC blocked
- This will cause all glucose to be converted into Lactate
- Cerebral lactic acidosis
What is a drug that inhibits TPP?
What type of vitamin is a pyrodixin derivative?
What is the active form of Vitamin B6?
What three groups of people can become Vitamin B6 deficient?
- 1) Alcoholics
- 2) Newborn babies of B6 deficient mothers
- 3) women taking oral contraceptives
What two drugs are known to inhibit Vitamin B6?
What neuropathy is a symptom of B6 excess?
What is another name for Niacin?
What are the two active forms of Vitamin B3?
What are the 2 diseases caused by Vitamin B3 deficiency?
- Pellagra (rough skin)
What are the four Ds of Pellagra?
- 1) Diarrhea
- 2) Dementia
- 3) Dermatitis
- 4) Death
What group most commonly gets Vitamin B3 deficiency?
What drug can cause Pellagra?
What is the active form of Folic acid?
What is the active form of Vitamin B12?
What is THF used for?
What are the two pathways for Vitamin B12 usage?
1 ) conversion of homocysteine to methionine through homocysteine methyltransferase (coenzyme)
2) methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA
What is required in the stomach to release Vitamin B12?
Pepsinogen - Pepsin
What problem arises during folate deficiency?
Neural tube defects
What drug inhibits folate?
What are the two active forms of Riboflavin (vitamin B12)?
- Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)
- Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
What are the active forms of Vitamin A?
- Retinoic Acid