BC #16 Vitamins.txt

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BC #16 Vitamins.txt
2011-01-25 16:56:09
BC Vitamins

BC #16 Vitamins
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  1. What are the three major uses of vitamins? (CAS)
    • 1) coenzymes
    • 2) Antioxidants
    • 3) signaling molecules
  2. When are the three times your body has an increased demand for vitamins? PAS
    • 1) Pregnancy
    • 2) Alcohol
    • 3) Stress
  3. What is the active form of Thiamine?
    Thiamine pyrophosphate
  4. What vitamins can be dangerous if ingested too often or too much at a time? (8)
    vitamin B 6, niacin, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, D, E, K
  5. What are the four uses for Thaimine as a coenzyme?
    • Transketolase (TK) reaction (HMP shunt)
    • PDHC
    • alpha-ketoglutarate dehydro (TCA cycle)
    • Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase
  6. What is the ultimate result of Thiamine deficiency?
    Lack of ATP production = cell death and lack of function
  7. What is a major disease caused by Thaimine deficiency?
    • Beriberi
    • ***2 types Dry and Wet
  8. What are dry and wet beriberi?
    • ***Come from Thiamine deficiency
    • Dry: peripheral neuropathy
    • Wet: Cardiovascular symptoms
  9. Where is Thiamine deficiency rare/not rare and why?
    • Rare: Western Countries due to fortified grains
    • Not rare: East Asia due to milled rice
  10. What type of neuropathy is cerebral beriberi?
    Central neuropathy
  11. What are the two types of cerebral beriberi and their symptoms?
    • 1) Wernicke's encephalopathy: Gait, stance, confusion
    • 2) Korsakoff's psychosis: memory loss, amnesia
  12. Why do you not want to treat a Thiamine deficient patient with glucose?
    • They have PDHC blocked
    • This will cause all glucose to be converted into Lactate
    • Cerebral lactic acidosis
  13. What is a drug that inhibits TPP?
  14. What type of vitamin is a pyrodixin derivative?
    Vitamin B6
  15. What is the active form of Vitamin B6?
    Pyridoxal phosphate
  16. What three groups of people can become Vitamin B6 deficient?
    • 1) Alcoholics
    • 2) Newborn babies of B6 deficient mothers
    • 3) women taking oral contraceptives
  17. What two drugs are known to inhibit Vitamin B6?
    • Isoniazid
    • L-dopa
  18. What neuropathy is a symptom of B6 excess?
    Sense neuropathy
  19. What is another name for Niacin?
    Vitamin B3
  20. What are the two active forms of Vitamin B3?
    • 1) Niacin
    • 2) Nicotinamide
  21. What are the 2 diseases caused by Vitamin B3 deficiency?
    • Pellagra (rough skin)
    • Hartnup
  22. What are the four Ds of Pellagra?
    • 1) Diarrhea
    • 2) Dementia
    • 3) Dermatitis
    • 4) Death
  23. What group most commonly gets Vitamin B3 deficiency?
  24. What drug can cause Pellagra?
  25. What is the active form of Folic acid?
  26. What is the active form of Vitamin B12?
  27. What is THF used for?
    One-carbon metabolism
  28. What are the two pathways for Vitamin B12 usage?
    1 ) conversion of homocysteine to methionine through homocysteine methyltransferase (coenzyme)

    2) methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA
  29. What is required in the stomach to release Vitamin B12?
    Pepsinogen - Pepsin
  30. What problem arises during folate deficiency?
    Neural tube defects
  31. What drug inhibits folate?
  32. What are the two active forms of Riboflavin (vitamin B12)?
    • Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)
    • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
  33. What are the active forms of Vitamin A?
    • Retinol
    • Retinal
    • Retinoic Acid