BC #16 Vitamins.txt

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Author:
kepling
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61670
Filename:
BC #16 Vitamins.txt
Updated:
2011-01-25 16:56:09
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BC Vitamins
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BC #16 Vitamins
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  1. What are the three major uses of vitamins? (CAS)
    • 1) coenzymes
    • 2) Antioxidants
    • 3) signaling molecules
  2. When are the three times your body has an increased demand for vitamins? PAS
    • 1) Pregnancy
    • 2) Alcohol
    • 3) Stress
  3. What is the active form of Thiamine?
    Thiamine pyrophosphate
  4. What vitamins can be dangerous if ingested too often or too much at a time? (8)
    vitamin B 6, niacin, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, D, E, K
  5. What are the four uses for Thaimine as a coenzyme?
    • Transketolase (TK) reaction (HMP shunt)
    • PDHC
    • alpha-ketoglutarate dehydro (TCA cycle)
    • Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase
  6. What is the ultimate result of Thiamine deficiency?
    Lack of ATP production = cell death and lack of function
  7. What is a major disease caused by Thaimine deficiency?
    • Beriberi
    • ***2 types Dry and Wet
  8. What are dry and wet beriberi?
    • ***Come from Thiamine deficiency
    • Dry: peripheral neuropathy
    • Wet: Cardiovascular symptoms
  9. Where is Thiamine deficiency rare/not rare and why?
    • Rare: Western Countries due to fortified grains
    • Not rare: East Asia due to milled rice
  10. What type of neuropathy is cerebral beriberi?
    Central neuropathy
  11. What are the two types of cerebral beriberi and their symptoms?
    • 1) Wernicke's encephalopathy: Gait, stance, confusion
    • 2) Korsakoff's psychosis: memory loss, amnesia
  12. Why do you not want to treat a Thiamine deficient patient with glucose?
    • They have PDHC blocked
    • This will cause all glucose to be converted into Lactate
    • Cerebral lactic acidosis
  13. What is a drug that inhibits TPP?
    5-fluorouracil
  14. What type of vitamin is a pyrodixin derivative?
    Vitamin B6
  15. What is the active form of Vitamin B6?
    Pyridoxal phosphate
  16. What three groups of people can become Vitamin B6 deficient?
    • 1) Alcoholics
    • 2) Newborn babies of B6 deficient mothers
    • 3) women taking oral contraceptives
  17. What two drugs are known to inhibit Vitamin B6?
    • Isoniazid
    • L-dopa
  18. What neuropathy is a symptom of B6 excess?
    Sense neuropathy
  19. What is another name for Niacin?
    Vitamin B3
  20. What are the two active forms of Vitamin B3?
    • 1) Niacin
    • 2) Nicotinamide
  21. What are the 2 diseases caused by Vitamin B3 deficiency?
    • Pellagra (rough skin)
    • Hartnup
  22. What are the four Ds of Pellagra?
    • 1) Diarrhea
    • 2) Dementia
    • 3) Dermatitis
    • 4) Death
  23. What group most commonly gets Vitamin B3 deficiency?
    Alcoholics
  24. What drug can cause Pellagra?
    5-fluorouracil
  25. What is the active form of Folic acid?
    Folate
  26. What is the active form of Vitamin B12?
    Cobalamines
  27. What is THF used for?
    One-carbon metabolism
  28. What are the two pathways for Vitamin B12 usage?
    1 ) conversion of homocysteine to methionine through homocysteine methyltransferase (coenzyme)

    2) methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA
  29. What is required in the stomach to release Vitamin B12?
    Pepsinogen - Pepsin
  30. What problem arises during folate deficiency?
    Neural tube defects
  31. What drug inhibits folate?
    Methotrexate
  32. What are the two active forms of Riboflavin (vitamin B12)?
    • Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)
    • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
  33. What are the active forms of Vitamin A?
    • Retinol
    • Retinal
    • Retinoic Acid

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