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Through what bone does the infraorbital canal emerg?
What nerve controls the muscles of facial expression?
Cranial nerve VII - Facial Nerve
What muscle travels from the neck to the lips?
What are the two circular muscles of the face and where are they?
- Orbicularis oculi - within the eyelids
- Orbicularis oris - within the lips
What lies between the pretragic and intertragic notch?
What gland lies under the ear?
Parotid salivary gland
What two veins come together to make the external jugular?
Maxillary vein and linguofacial vein
What nerve passes through the infraorbital foramen?
Infraorbital nerve - branch of the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial)
What duct travels over the masseter muscle?
What gland lies in the "V" between the maxillary vein and linguofacial vein?
The mandibular salivary gland
What nerve travels over the masseter muscle?
The facial nerve - dorsal buccal branch and the ventral buccal branch
What is the small gland located on the mandibular salivary gland called?
Monostomatic part of the sublingual salivary gland
What are the boundries of the nasal cavity?
- Rostral - Nostrils
- Ventral - Bone of hard palate
What are the boundries of the oral cavity?
- Rostral - Lips
- Dorsal - Bone of hard palate
Where is the annular fold found?
Between the laryngopharynx and the esophagus
Name the bones of the hyoid apparatus, starting from the skull.
- Stylohyoid bone
- Epihyoid bone
- Ceratohyoid bone
- Basihyoid bone
- Thyroidhyoid bone
- Thyroid cartilage
What are the muscles of the tongue?
Genioglossus, Geniohyodeus, Hyoglossus, Mylohyoideus, Styloglossus
What mussle pulls the tongue out?
- Geniohyodeus (pulls the hyoid apparatus rostrally and the tongue with it)
What muscle(s) retract the tongue?
- Hyoglossus - retracts and depresses the root of the tongue
What is the action of the pterygoid muscle?
Closes the jaw
What is the action of the digastricus muscle?
Opens the jaw
What is the action of the masseter muscle?
Closes the jaws and moves jaws laterally
What is the action of the temporalis muscle?
Closes the jaw
What is the upper part of the forelimb called?
What is the lower part of the forelimb called?
What is the distal part of the forelimb called?
What are the three sesamoid bones of the manus?
Dorsal sesamoid, proximal sesamoid and distal sesamoid bone
What is the "elbow" called?
What are the three joints of the manus called in order from proximal to distal?
- Metacarpophalangeal joint
- Proximal interphalangeal joint
- Distal interphalangeal joint
What stabilizes the shoulder joint?
The tendons of insertion of the supraspinatous, infraspinatus and the subscapularis muscles act as active collateral ligaments
What ligaments helps prevent excessive flexion and lusation of the elbow joint?
The oblique ligament (dog and cat only)
What four ligaments act on the elbow joint.
- Oblique ligament - from olecranon to olecranon fossa
- Medial collateral ligament - from medial side of humerus to medial side of radius
- Lateral collateral ligament - "V" shaped, from lateral side of humus to lateral side of radius and ulna
- Annular ligament - encloses head of radius within a ring
What small muscle runs from the lateral side of the humerus to the radius?
What are the joints of the carpus in order from proximal to distal?
- Antibrachial carpal joint (greatest movement)
- Middle carpal joint (15 degree flexion)
- Carpometacarpal joint (~5 degrees flexion)
What joints of the carpus share a synovial membrane?
Middle carpal joint and carpometacarpal joint
What are the characteristics of a hinge joint and give an example.
- Flexion & extension
- Strong collateral ligaments
- Eg. proximal interphalangeal joint
What are the characteristics of a condylar joint and give an example.
- Uniaxial movement about an axis common to the two condyles
- Eg. Femorotibial joint
What are the characteristics of a ball and socket joint and give an example.
- Extensive movement - flexion, extension, rotation, adduction, abduction
- Eg. hip joint
What are the characteristics of a saddle joint and give an example.
- Flexion and extension
- Eg. Distal interphalangeal joint
What nerves innervate the forelimb?
- Suprascapular nerve
- Radial nerve
- Axillary nerve
- Musculocutaneus nerve
- Median nerve
- Ulnar nerve
What spinal nerves form the suprascapular nerve?
C6 and C7
What spinal nerves form the radial nerve?
C8, T1, T2
What spinal nerves from the axillary nerve?
C7 and C8
What nerve innervates the triceps brachii muscle?
What nerve innervates the supraspinator and infraspinatus muscles?
What nerve innervates the teres major and teres minor?
What two nerves in the forelimb travel in the same connective tissue sheath?
Median and ulna nerves
What spinal nerves form the musculocutanues nerve?
C6 and C7
What spinal nerves form the median nerve?
C8 and T1
What spinal nerves form the ulnar nerve?
What muscles does the musculocutanues nerve innervate?
- Coracobrachialis muscle
- Biceps brachii muscle
- Brachialis muscle
What muscles does the median nerve innervate?
- Pronator teres
- Flexors of carpus and digits
What two nerves anastomose in the forelimb and where?
The musculocutaneus nerve and the median nerve just past the level of the elbow.
What two muscles make up the brachiocephalicus?
- Cleidocephalicus muscle
- Cleidobrachialis muscle
By what tracheal rings does the thyroid lie?
Between rings 1 -5
How many ribs does a dog have?
- 13 ribs
- 9 true ribs
- 3 false ribs
- 1 floating rib
How many sternebra make up the sternum?
7 sternebra with intersternebral cartilage in between.
How many vertebra in the dog?
- - 7 cervical
- - 13 thoracic
- - 7 lumbar
- - 3 sacral
What is the name of the ligament that connects the left and right ribs across the vertebrae?
The intercapital ligament - prevents prolapse of the disc into vertebral canal
From rostral to caudal what are the muscles around the laryngopharynx?
- Hyopharyngeus muscle
- Thyropharyngeus muscle
- Cricopharyngeus muscle
What is the name of the cavity that the palantine tonsils sit in?
What are the layers of the epidermis and their characteristics from the deepest upwards?
- Stratum basale - single layer
- Stratum spinosum - polygonal, massive production of keratin fibers
- Stratum granulosum - keratohyalin granules, keratin fibers, intercellular lipids
- Stratum corneum - no nuclei, no organelles
What embryonic layer does skin come from?
What are the layers of the hair shaft from inside-out?
What side of the abdomen is the descending duodenum on?
What side of the abdomen is the stomach on?
What side of the abdomen is the spleen on?
What path through the digestive tract would a piece of food travel?
- Oral cavity
- Stomach (fundas, body, pyloric part)
- Descending duodenum
- Caudal flexure
- Ascending duodenum
- Ascending colon
- Transverse colon
- Descending colon
What is the name of the peritoneum suspending the duodenum?
What is the name of the peritoneum suspending the jujenum?
What is the space called that's created by the fold of the greater omentum?
What are the branches of the abdominal aorta (cranial to caudal)
- Celiac artery*
- Cranial mesenteric*
- Phrenicoabdominal arteries
- Renal arteries
- Ovarian / Testicular arteries
- Caudal mesenteric*
- Deep circumflex iliac arteries
- External iliac arteries
- Internal iliac arteries
- Median Sacral artery*
* - not paired
What are the Tributaries of the Caudal Vena Cava (cranial to caudal)
- Hepatic veins
- Phrenicoabdominal veins
- Renal veins
- Ovarian / Testicular veins
- Deep circumflex iliac
- External iliac
- Internal iliac
- Median sacral vein (not paired)
What are the veins that become the Hepatic portal vein?
- Cranial mesenteric
- Caudal mesenteric
What muscle runs from the caudal aspect of the cranial rib to the cranial aspect of the caudal rib?
What muscle runs from the cranial aspect of the caudal rib to the caudal aspect of the cranial rib?
Describe the path of the Vagus nerve
- Travels down the left and right sides of the esophagus.
- Right side branches into the right recurrent laryngeal nerve and circles around the right subclavian artery.
- Left side branches into the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and circles around the aorta.
- Just past the aorta the vagus nerve branches into a dorsal and ventral branch.
What are the main arterial branches of the aorta?
- Brachiocephalic trunk
- - R & L common carotid artery
- - Right subclavian
- Left subclavian
- Intercostal arteries (9 pairs)
What are the arterial branches of the subclavian artery?
- Vertebral artery
- Costocervical artery
- Internal thoracic artery
- Superficial cervical artery
turns into axillary artery
What veins go into the heart?
- Cranial vena cava
- Azygous vein (on right side of dog)
- Caudal vena cava
What is the cranial draw test and what does it test for?
If you can pull the tibia cranially - ruptured cranial cruciate ligament
What is the caudal draw test and what does it test for?
If you can pull the tibia caudally - ruptured caudal cruciate ligament
What spinal nerves form the Femoral nerve?
L4, L5 and L6
What spinal nerves form the Obturator nerve?
L7 and S1
What muscles does the Obturator nerve innervate?
- Obturator muscle
- Gracilis muscle
- Adductor muscle
What structures lie within the femoral triangle
- Femoral nerve
- Femoral artery
- Femoral vein
What muscles does the Femoral nerve innervate?
- Quadriceps femoris
- Sartorius muscle
What spinal nerves form the sciatic nerve?
L7, S1 and S2
What are the joints of the tarsus from proximal to distal?
- Tarsocrural joint
- Proximal intertarsal joint
- Distal intertarsal joint
- Tarsometatarsal joint
What muscle(s) close the jaw?
- Termporalis m.
- Masseter m.
- Pterygoid m.
- (all paired)
What muscle(s) open the jaw?