genetics lecture 1

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genetics lecture 1
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2011-01-24 16:50:54
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lecture 1
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  1. Genetics
    is the study of inherited traits
  2. Genes
    are the elements of heredity
  3. Genomics
    • is the study of all of the genes in an
    • organism
  4. Genomics
    • is the study of all of the genes in an
    • organism
  5. Proteomics
    • is the study of all
    • the proteins of an organism

  6. Genetic Blueprint
    • Each organism has its own “Genetic Blueprint” that makes it different from others.
  7. Genetic Blueprint is stored in
    • This information is stored in the chromosomes located in the
    • nucleus
  8. genes
    • The genetic information is stored as discrete instructions called “genes”.
  9. The existence of genes was first suggested by the work of
    Gregor Mendel in 1866
  10. Classical genetics is the
    • approach to the study of genetics through analysis of the
    • offspring of matings.
  11. Friedrich Meischer discovered
    DNA in 1869.
  12. Molecular genetics is
    • the analysis of differences between species through the study
    • of DNA itself

  13. Evidence for the role of

    chromosomes in inheritance

    • Nuclei of male and female reproductive cells undergo fusion
    • during fertilization
    • Chromosomes were observed in the nucleus
    • Chromosomes split and each daughter cell receives an identical
    • set
    • Chromosome number may differ between species but is the same
    • within a particular species

  14. What is the genetic material?

    • Chromosomes contain DNA and protein
    • The kinds of
    • protein present differ by cell type
    • DNA was thought to lack the chemical diversity needed for the
    • genetic material
  15. Griffith
    • genetic transformation in bacteria
  16. Avery, MacLeod and McCarty –
    – DNA is the transforming material
  17. Hershey and Chase
    DNA is the genetic material
  18. DNA is the
    genetic material

  19. Properties of DNA

    • Double helix
    • Strands show complementary base pairing
    • A:T and G:C
    • base pairs
  20. antiparallel
    The 2 strands
  21. Blocks in metabolic pathways can cause
    disease
  22. Alkaptonuria
    excretion of homogentisic acid
  23. Phenylketonuria
    • – phenylalanine accumulation
  24. Diseases from inborn
    • errors in phenylalanine and
    • tyrosine breakdown
  25. Many genetic diseases are caused by
    defective genes
  26. The first such disease
    alkaptonuria
  27. alkaptonuria
    was discovered by Archibald Garrod in 1908.
  28. alkaptonuria cause
    The disease results in black urine.
  29. what cause alkaptonuria?
    • It is caused by a defective enzyme in the pathway
    • leading to the breakdown of a protein component, the amino acid phenylalanine.
  30. This alkaptonuria defect leads to
    • the accumulation of
    • the compound
    • Homogentisic acid (also called alkapton) which

    • turns black upon oxidation.
  31. Nutritional mutants help
    determine
    metabolic pathways

  32. Most traits are affected

    by multiple genes

    • One gene can affect more than one trait
    • Any trait can be affected by more than one gene
    • Most traits are affected by environmental factors as well as
    • genes

  33. All living things are similar

    at the molecular level

    • Organisms look very different on the surface but at the
    • molecular level they are very similar.
    • DNA is the genetic material and the genetic code is the same.
    • Mechanisms of RNA and protein synthesis are very similar.

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