Fluid and Electro

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dabrojr
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61780
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Fluid and Electro
Updated:
2011-01-24 23:00:28
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Fluid electrolyte balance Chapt
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IDC fluid electro balance
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  1. what is normally treated with IV sodium chloride
    Hyponatremia
  2. Acid base balance is based on what?
    Hydrogen Ions
  3. What is the presence of abnormally large amounts of intercellular tissue spaces of the body
    Edema
  4. What is described as the administration of nutrients, special fluids and/or electrolytes by injection?
    Parenteral therapy
  5. examples of parenteral routes
    • Intravenous
    • subcutaneous
  6. Homeostasis or consistancy of fluid and electrolytes
    Fluid and Electrolyte balance
  7. NOrmal value of total body water?
    45-75%
  8. What is the normal value of body water by weight in a young non obese adult
    60-70%
  9. What extra cellular fluid stays plasma through out life
    Plasma
  10. What consist of mainly plasma found in blood vessels and interstitual fluid that surronds the cells
    Extracellular fluid
  11. Refers to water inside the cell
    Intracellular fluid
  12. What are positive ions
    Cations
  13. What are negative Ions
    anions
  14. The important Cations
    • Sodium (Na+)
    • Calcium(Ca+)
    • Potassium(K+)
    • Magnesium(Mg++)
  15. What are important anions?
    • Chloride(Cl-)
    • bicarbonate(HCO-3)
    • Phosphate (HPO4=)
    • and many protiens
  16. WHat meets the maintenance needs of nutrients, fluids, and electrolytes
    Parenteral Solutions
  17. What replaces past losses
    Parenteral Solutions
  18. What are 7 basic fluid/electrolyte therapy solutions?
    • Carbohydrate in water
    • Carbohydrate in Various strength of saline
    • 0.9%NaCl
    • Potassium Solutions
    • Ringers solution
    • Lactate Solution
    • Ammonium Chloride solution
  19. Measure of number of ionic charges or electrovalent bonds in a solution
    milliequivalent
  20. Serves as an accurate measure of chemical combining power, or reactivity of an electrolyte solution
    milliequivalent
  21. What does the Justaglomerular cells in the kidneys have to do with fluid balance
    • 1. secret renin which act on angiotensinogen in the blood
    • 2. becomes angiotensin1
    • 3. in lungs become angiotensin2
    • 4. stimulate aldesteron secretion in brain creating thirst sensation
  22. WHat are the highly specialized nerve cells in the roof of the third ventricle of the brain
    Subfornical Organ(SFO)
  23. What osmoceptors in the hypothalamus constitute the functional thirst center of the brain
    SFO and ADH-secreting cells
  24. What are two factors that determine urine volume
    • Glomular filtration rate
    • water reabsorption by renal tubules
  25. What are the control mechanisms for water exchange between plasma and interstitual fluid
    • Starlings law of capillaries consist of four types of pressure
    • Blood hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure on one side
    • interstitual hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure on other side
  26. According to starlings law what forces fluid out of the capillaries into the interstitial fluid
    Blood hydrostatic pressure
  27. According to starlings law what forces fluid into capillaries from interstitual fluid
    blood colloid osmotic pressure
  28. According to starlings law what forces fluid out of interstitual fluid into capillaries
    interstitual fluid hydrostatic pressure
  29. According to starlings law what draws fluid back out of capillaries into interstitual fluid
    Interstitual fluid colloid osmotic pressure
  30. What cannot diffuse into cells due to small pores on the cell membrane
    large protien molucules
  31. When chloride ions that normally excreted as potassium salt but when there is a chloride defeciency due to potassium loss is called
    hypochloremia
  32. Potassium defeciency due to burns, trauma, dehydration is called?
    Hypokalemia
  33. The numerical value of pH represents
    Hydrogen Ions H+
  34. What are acid forming elements found in high protien foods
    • chlorine
    • sulfur
    • phosphorus
  35. Where are acid forming elements found
    • High protien foods:
    • fish
    • eggs
    • poultry
  36. what are alkalinic (basic) elemnts
    • potassium
    • calcium
    • sodium
    • magnesium
  37. Where are alkaline elements found
    • Base forming foods
    • fruits and vegatables
  38. What is acid base balance
    Regulation of hydrogen ion concentration
  39. WHat is the term that refers to the regulation of Hydrogen Ion concentration
    Acid Base balance
  40. A numerical symbol used to represent the negative logarithim of the number of Hydrogen Ions(H+) present in 1 liter of solution
    pH
  41. What indicates neutratility in acid base balance
    pH 7
  42. pH less than 7 indicates
    • acidic
    • more H+ than OH-
  43. Ph greater than 7 indicates
    • Alkalinity
    • more OH- than H+
  44. What are some sources that influence pH or Hydrogen ions on bodily fluid
    • carbonic acid
    • lactic acid
    • sulfuric acid
    • phosphoric acid
    • acidic ketone bodies
  45. What is produced by aerobic metabolism of glucose
    Carbonic acid
  46. What is produced by anaerobic metabolism of glucose
    Lactic Acid
  47. What is the oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids
    sulfuric acid
  48. formed by the breakdown if phosphoprotiens and ribonucleotides
    Phosphoric acid
  49. formed by the breakdown of fats
    Acidic Ketone bodies
  50. Substances that prevent a marked change in pH of a solution when an acid or base is added to it
    Buffers
  51. Buffers that consist of two kinds of substances are called
    Buffer Pairs
  52. What are the buffer pairs of most bodily fluids?
    • Weak acid
    • salt of the acid
  53. Normal blood pH range
    7.36-7.41
  54. What are the bicarbonate pairs
    • Sodium bicarb (NaHCO3) and Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
    • Potassium Bicarb (KHCO3)and Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
  55. The process of exchanging bicarbonate ions formed in red blood cells with chloride
    Chloride shift
  56. What is the plasma value of a young adult male
    3L
  57. What is the interstitial fluid value of a young adult male
    12L
  58. What is the intracellular fluid of a young adult male
    25L
  59. pH of venous blood
    7.36
  60. pH of arterial blood
    7.41
  61. How does strong acid differ from weak acid
    the number of H+ ions it yields
  62. Renal control of pH refers to
    Kidneys
  63. decreased blood pH (acidosis) does what to respirations
    Hyperventilation
  64. Prolonged hyperventilation may cause
    alkalosis
  65. An increase inblood pH above normal may cause
    hypoventilation
  66. prolonged hypoventilation may cause
    acidosis
  67. increasing respirations (hyperventilation) due to hydrogen ion concentration increase does what
    • increase elimination of CO2
    • leaving less carbonic acid
    • decreasing hydrogen ions in the blood
  68. CO2 leaves blood to distal tubule joins H2O becomes carbonic acid,
    H dissacoiates leaving bicarb, the H goes to tubular urine
    displaces base sodium ions and becomes weak salt in unrine
    displaced sodium leaves to distal tubule and forms with left over bicarb
    Sodium Bicarb returns to blood
    Mechanism of Urine pH control

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