lab1.txt

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Anonymous
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61803
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lab1.txt
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2011-01-24 21:29:48
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Anatomy physiology lab
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A&P first lab; directional terms etc
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  1. Anterior
    Near to or the front of the body
  2. Ventral
    Near to or at the front of the body
  3. Posterior
    Near to or at the back of the body
  4. Dorsal
    Near to or at the back of the body
  5. Lateral
    Farther from the midline of the body or structure
  6. Medial
    Nearer to the midline of the body or structure
  7. Median
    Lying In the midline � central position
  8. Intermediate
    Between two structures
  9. Superior
    Toward the head or upper part of the structure
  10. Cepahlic
    Toward the head or upper part of the structure
  11. Cranial
    Toward the head or upper part of the structure
  12. Inferior
    Away from the head, closer to the lower part
  13. Caudal
    Away from the head, closer to the lower part
  14. Proximal
    Nearer to the point of origin or trunk attachment
  15. Distal
    Farther to the point of origin or trunk attachment
  16. Superficial
    Toward or on the body surface
  17. Deep
    Away from the body surface
  18. Parietal
    Pertaining to or forming the outer wall of a body cavity
  19. Visceral
    Pertaining to or forming the outer covering of an organ within a body cavity
  20. Ipsilaterial
    On the same side
  21. Contralaterial
    On the opposite side
  22. Prone
    The body when lying face downward
  23. Supine
    The body when lying face upward
  24. Planes of the body
    Imaginary flat lines that pass thought the body and/or its parts
  25. When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions, then it is called a
    Frontal or coronal plane
  26. When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into equal right and let portions, then it is called a
    Midsagittal
  27. When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into unequal right and let portions, then it is called a
    Sagittal or parasagittal plane
  28. When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) portions, then it is called a
    Transverse or horizontal plane
  29. Sections though a body
    Actual cut made along a plane
  30. If a cut is made along (parallel to) the long axis of the body or part then it is called a
    Longitudinal section
  31. A frontal section is a
    Longitudinal section that passes along a frontal plane
  32. A Midsagittal section is a
    Is a longitudinal section that passes along a Midsagittal plane
  33. A Sagittal section is a
    Longitudinal section that passes along a Sagittal plane
  34. If a cut is made perpendicular to the long axis of the body or a part, than it is called a
    Transverse or cross section
  35. A cross section passes along a
    Transverse plane
  36. If a cut is made at an angel (but not 90deg), then it is called an
    Oblique section.
  37. Dorsal body cavity houses the
    Cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity
  38. Cranial cavity contains
    Cranial bones (skull), Brain
  39. Vertebral canal contains the
    Vertebrate, Spinal cord
  40. Ventral body cavity contains the
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Abdominoplevic cavity
  41. Mediastinum
    Region of the thoracic between the lungs, between the sternum and vertebral column; contains the trachea, bronchial tubes, esophagus, heart, vessels and CT
  42. Serous membrane within the ventral body cavity included the:
    • � Pleura
    • � Pericardium
    • � Peritoneum
  43. The serous membrane is a
    thin double-layer membrane with a Fluid filled cavity between the layers (visceral layer and parietal layer)
  44. Retroperitoneal: behind the peritoneum
    Between the wall and the parietal peritoneum;
  45. Mesentery: double layer of peritoneum
    Supports intestines and �transports� vessels and nerves back and forth
  46. Right upper quadrant
    • � Right lobe of liver
    • � Pylorus of stomached
    • � Gallbladder
    • � Duodenum
    • � Head of pancreas
    • � Right kidney
    • � Right suprarenal gland
    • � Part of ascending colon (large)
    • � Part of transverse colon (large)
  47. Right lower quadrant
    • � Cecum (large)
    • � Appendix
    • � Most of ileum (small)
    • � Part of ascending colon
    • � Right ovary
    • � Right uterine tube
    • � Part of right Ureter
    • � Part of right spermatic cord
    • � Uterus if enlarged
    • � Urinary bladder if very full
  48. Left upper quadrant
    • � Left lobe of liver
    • � Spleen
    • � Stomach
    • � Jejunum and proximal ileum
    • � Pancreas
    • � Left kidney
    • � Left supernal gland
    • � Part of transverse colon
    • � Part of descending colon
  49. Left lower quadrant
    • � Part of descending colon
    • � Sigmoid colon
    • � Left ovary
    • � Left Ureter
    • � Part of left spermatic cord
    • � Uterus if enlarged
    • � Urinary bladder if very full
  50. Integumentary
    • � forms external body covering; protection; temperature regulation; waste elimination; vitamin D synthesis
    • � Skin,
    • � Hair, nails,
    • � Sweat glands, Sebaceous glands�
  51. Skeletal
    • � Supports and protects body; Leverage; Stores minerals; Blood cells form within bone cavities
    • � Bones (e.g. Frontal b., clavicle, rib�),
    • � Cartilages...
    • � (& Joints)
  52. Muscular
    • � Movement; Thermo genesis; Maintains posture
    • � Skeletal muscles (e.g. deltoideus, gluteus maximus, trapezius�)
  53. � (smooth muscle & cardiac muscle)
  54. Nervous
    • � Regulates the body activities though nerve impulse
    • � Brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, sensory organs�
  55. Endocrine
    • � Regulates the body activities through hormones
    • � Ovary, pancreas, parathyroid gland, pituitary, suprarenal gland, testis, thymus, thyroid gland, various endocrine cells�
  56. Cardiovascular
    • � Transports O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, etc.
    • � Protects against disease and hemorrhage.
    • � Heart, blood vessels, Blood
  57. Lymphatic
    • � Filters body fluids; Produces white blood cells; Involved in immune response
    • � Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsil�., lymphatic vessels.
    • � Lymph
  58. Respiratory
    • � Gaseous exchange; Helps regulate acid/base balance of blood
    • � Larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus�
  59. Digestive
  60. � Physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorption of food products; elimination of undigested foodstuffs in feces
    � Gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine�), Gall bladder, Liver, Pancreas, Salivary glands, Teeth
  61. Urinary
    • � Elimination of nitrogenous wastes in urine; regulates water, electrolyte and acid/base balance of blood.
    • � Kidney, Ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
  62. Reproductive
    • � Propagation of species
    • � Testis, prostate gland, penis...Ovary, uterine tube, uterus�
    • Levels of structural organization (fig 1.1 pg 4)
  63. Chemical level
    Atoms ? Molecules
  64. Cellular Level
    Cell = basic living structure and functional unit of the body
  65. Tissue level
    Tissue = aggregrate of similarly specialized cells along with the extracellular material united to perform a particular function
  66. 4 basic tissues (General)
    Epithelium, connective, muscular,nerve
  67. Epithelium � covers and lines body surfaces; helps to form glands
    Have a free surface � closely packed
  68. Connective Tissue � binds together, defense, support to the body.
    Consists of cells, fibers, and grand substance
  69. Muscle Tissue � communication
    Cross striations
  70. Nervous Tissue - communication
    Cells with long processes
  71. Organ Level
    Organ = structure with a definite form and function; composed of 2 or more tissues
  72. System Level
    System = a set of interconnected or interdependent organs that function together in a common purpose
  73. Organism Level
    = sum total of all structural levels working together to keep you alive
  74. Transformer
    Controls the amount of light emitted from the light source
  75. Condenser
    • Concentrates the light up thought the object being viewed
    • Contrast
    • The difference, as in color or tone
  76. Resolution
    The smallest distance between two objects when these two objects can be seen
  77. Epithelial tissue identifying characteristic
    Has a free surface consisting of a single layer of closely packed cells and underlain by connective tissue
  78. Connective tissue identifying characteristic
    Consists of cells, fibers and ground subst. Not as closely packed as epithelium
  79. Muscle tissue identifying characteristics
    Striped appearance in longitudinal sections
  80. Nervous tissue identifying characteristic
    Very long cytoplasm processes
  81. Abdominal
    Abdomen
  82. Acromial
    Point of shoulder
  83. Antebrachial
    Forearm
  84. Antecubital
    Front of elbow
  85. Appendicular
    Limbs
  86. Axial
    Main body axis
  87. Axillary
    Armpit
  88. Brachial
    Arm
  89. Buccal
    Cheek
  90. Calcaneal
    Heel
  91. Carpal
    Wrist
  92. Cephalic
    Head
  93. Cervical
    Neck
  94. Coxal
    Hip
  95. Cranial
    Part of the skull that houses the brain
  96. Crural
    Leg
  97. Digital
    Fingers or toes
  98. Dorsal or dorsum
    Back
  99. Facial
    Part of the skull that forms the face
  100. Femoral
    Thigh
  101. Frontal
    Forehead
  102. Gluteal
    Buttocks
  103. Hallux
    Big toe
  104. Inguinal
    Groin
  105. Lumbar
    Loin (lower back)
  106. Mammary
    Breast
  107. Manual or manus
    Hand
  108. Mental
    Chin
  109. Metacarpal
    Area of hand between wrist and fingers
  110. Metatarsal
    Area of foot between ankle and toes
  111. Nasal
    Nose
  112. Occipital
    Back of head; base of skull
  113. Olecranal
    Back of elbow
  114. Oral
    Mouth
  115. Orbital
    Eye
  116. Otic
    Ear
  117. Palmar
    Palm
  118. Patellar
    Anterior knee
  119. Pedal
    Food
  120. Pelvic
    Pelvis
  121. Perineal
    Region between anus and external genitalia
  122. Peroneal or fibular
    Side of leg
  123. Phalangeal
    Fingers or toes
  124. Plantar
    Sole of foot
  125. Pollex
    Thumb
  126. Popliteal
    Back of knee
  127. Pubic
    Genital region
  128. Sacral
    Posterior area between the hips
  129. Scapular
    Shoulder blade area
  130. Sternal
    Breastbone
  131. Sural
    Calf region
  132. Tarsal
    Ankle
  133. Thoracic
    Chest
  134. Trunk
    The body excluding the head, neck and limbs
  135. Umbilical
    Navel region
  136. Vertebral
    Spinal column region

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