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A comparatively small habitat separated from a major habitat of the same kind.
Theory of Island Biogeography
- - The smaller the island, the fewer species
- - The farther away the island is from a continent(mainland) the fewer species it will have
Physical and biological changes that occur along the transition between two habitat types.
- Effects survivability of species: temperature difference, exposure to light, etc.
Staggered setting- checkerboard (more edge!!)
Minimal- Block (less edge!!)
Allows migration between parks or preserves- insurance against catastrophe
Steps of scientific method
- 1. Make observations- develop a question
- 2. Develop a tentative answer to the question- hypothesis
- 3. Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis
- 4. Collect data
- 5. Interpret data through graphs or other means
- 6. Draw a conclusion from the data
- 7. Compare conclusion with hypothesis- support or disprove
Manipulated by scientist
Responding variable- depends on independent variable
Exact duplicate of experiment without independent variable
A tentative answer to a question that can be tested and capable of being disproved.
Grand scheme that relates and explains many observations and is supported by a great deal of evidence
Like when you predict something is going to happen- it's like a guess mofo, like a guess
Point source pollution
Pipeline discharge into water (Factories releasing shit into water from a pipe)
runoff from land into water (car wash)
- Occurrence of an unwanted change in the environment
- -caused by introduction of unwanted materials
- -production of harmful conditions (heat, sound, etc.)
Materials(pollutants) that are poisonous to people and other living things
- Burning coal in power plants
- Cement kilns
- Compact fluorescent bulbs
- Mercury mines
- Old paint
- Old plumbing systems (lead pipes)
- “Leaded” gasoline
the accumulation or increase in concentration of a substance in living tissue as it moves through a food web.
Hormonally Active Agents
Substances that act like hormones\
Persistent Organic Pollutants
Synthetic organic compounds often containing chlorine, that do not easily break down in the environment.
Heat pollution- Occurs when heat released into water or air produces undesirable effects
- Unwanted sound-
- - Above 80dB potentially dangerous for humans
- -110dB's damage can occur
- - Above 140 dB cause pain
Energy of motion (water flowing over a dam, a wheel rolling down a hill)
Stored energy (a car battery, a stretched rubber-band)
Random motion of atoms and molecules- fire, boiling water
Energy of electromagnetic waves
Example- Radio waves, x rays
energy produced through reactions that occur in chemical compounds
Example- Match, fuels such as gas
High quality energy
Easier to do work, more work can be done- cause more change
Lower quality energy
Harder to do work, less work done
First law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed- Energy can be converted from one form to another
Second law of Thermodynamics
Energy goes from a higher quality form to a lower quality form
First Law energy efficiency
(Energy delivered/energy supplied) * 100%
Second Law Energy efficiency
The ratio of the minimum amount of work or energy required to perform a task to the amount actually used.
Getting by with less demand for energy.
Yield more energy output from a given amount of input energy
Capture and use waste heat
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