Bio 242 Test 1

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
61852
Filename:
Bio 242 Test 1
Updated:
2011-01-24 23:55:43
Tags:
bio
Folders:

Description:
test 1
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. -brain and spinal cord
    -control, runs whole body, communication
    -integrative and control centers
    -electrical/chemical communication
    -very fast and specific
    -input, decision making, response
    Central Nervous System (CNS)
  2. bringing info into CNS, internal or external, spinal cord attaches to brain and every other part of body
    sensory = input = integrative (brain receives input, makes a decision and a response)
  3. info from an internal muscular area
    zomatosensory
  4. communication between body and CNS, cranial nerves (from brain) and spinal nerves (exit intervertebral foramina)
    Peripheral Nervous System
  5. anything coming into the CNS, aka: afferent
    sensory
  6. anything going out of the CNS, aka: efferent
    motor
  7. 1. somatic- musculoskeletal system (muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons): if you break a bone, somatic sensory tells brain "ouch"
    2. visceral- organs (hungry, thirsty, full bladder)
    sensory and motor
  8. conducts impulses from CNS to effectors (muscles and glands)
    motor
  9. involuntary
    visceral motor
    conducts impulses from CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
    ex: cannot change your heart rate
    Autonomic System
  10. speeds us up (except digestion), fight or flight, survival
    sympathetic
  11. slows us down, conserves energy, restful state to be in
    parasympathetic
  12. made of cholesterol, surrounds axon, makes impulse move very fast
    myelin
  13. conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma
    axon
  14. myelin sheath is deteriorating, impulses are slower if you get hurt
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  15. when cell body of neuron clusters together in CNS, called nuclei is a ________
    tract
  16. when cell body of neuron clusters outside of CNS, called ganglia are ________
    nerves
  17. ascending --> _________, descending --> __________
    sensory/motor
  18. impulse is going into CNS
    sensory/afferent
  19. impulse is going away from CNS
    motor/efferent
  20. extra neurons in between sensory and motor neurons
    interneurons
  21. gates in our system that we can open or close depending on circumstances we are in, always go from area of higher concentration to lower concentration, difference between keeping outside/inside
    neurophysiology
  22. (4) neurophysiology gates
    • 1. ligand> chemical gate, opens and closes depending on chemicals
    • 2. voltage> electricity
    • 3. mechanical> touch and pressure
    • 4. open> always stay open
    • **others open and close during certain situations
  23. inside (negative) is more negative than outside (positive), difference of -70 millivolts (mV)
    potential (resting)
  24. most important ion in nerve confuction
    K+ (potassium)
  25. change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative, bigger difference between inside and outside, more of a change
    hyperpolarization
  26. change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it less negative, smaller difference between inside and outside, less of a change
    depolarization
  27. space between neurons
    synapse
  28. in regards to conduction velocities of neurons, the bigger the axon, the ________ it goes. Some nerve axons go very slow and some go very fast.

    faster/slower
    faster
  29. neurotransmitter than excites muscle to contract
    acetylcholine (ACh)
  30. secreted by end of axons, next neuron to it will respond, binding opens in ion channels resulting in graded potentials
    neurotransmitters
  31. excitatory neurotransmitters will cause ___________

    depolarization/hyperpolarization
    depolarization
  32. inhibitory neurotransmitters results in ____________

    depolarization/hyperpolarization
    hyperpolarization
  33. we have the most complex cerebral cortex, increase in anterior superior aspect of brain
    cephalization
  34. specialization of certain functions
    lateralization
  35. skilled, voluntary, conscious movement... which motor area?

    primary motor cortex
    premotor cortex
    Broca's area
    frontal eye field
    primary motor cortex
  36. control of learned movement, ex: pen and paper, learn how to write... which motor area?

    primary motor cortex
    premotor cortex
    Broca's area
    frontal eye field
    premotor cortex
  37. motor for speech... which motor area?

    primary motor cortex
    premotor cortex
    Broca's area
    frontal eye field
    Broca's area
  38. motor to the eyes, muscles for eye movement... which motor area?

    primary motor cortex
    premotor cortex
    Broca's area
    frontal eye field
    frontal eye field
  39. sensations from musculoskeletal system, ex: close eyes, you still know where elbow is... which sensory area?

    primary somatosensory cortex
    somatosensory association cortex
    auditory association area
    primary somatosensory area
  40. you are aware of what you're doing, hands/face/fingers have most concentration, you can measure how well it is
    proprioception
  41. interpretation, to understand what certain input means, ex) put a rock in one hand, sponge in other, you can tell difference between the two... which sensory area?

    primary somatosensory cortex
    somatosensory association cortex
    auditory association area
    somatosensory association cortex
  42. what does a sound mean, perception of what a word means, ex) sirens=bad... which sensory area?

    primary somatosensory cortex
    somatosensory association cortex
    auditory association area
    auditory association area
  43. smell > memory > very powerful
    olfactory
  44. memory and meaning to all our input (association area)
    multi-modal
  45. most complex learning occurring, personality, use this in classroom/learning, aka: cognition (prefrontal cortex)/(association area)
    anterior association area
  46. takes all input around you and makes sense of it (association area)
    posterior association area
  47. emotions and memories (associated areas)
    limbic association area
  48. cerebral white matter in brain > __________ within brain
    communication
  49. motor function (motor/movement), controls starting and stopping of movement
    basal nuclei
  50. diencephalon
    thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
  51. gateway to cerebral cortex, sorts and edits all input, ex: auditory goes to hearing, etc
    thalamus
  52. visceral control center (organs), temperature/hunger/thirst- basic functioning that we do not have to think about
    hypothalamus
  53. sleep/wake cycle, biological clock
    epithalamus
  54. "built-in survival"
    brain stem
  55. survival in terms of fight or flight, produces dopamine (neurotransmitter), involved in pain suppression (put it off during FB game until game is over)
    Midbrain
  56. relay area, lets cerebellum and motor cortex know what is going on (muscle control)
    Pons
  57. decussation: crossing over of nerve tracts (left brain controls right side of body, vice versa), reflex center > cannot hold breath and kill yourself, this will force you to breathe
    Medulla oblongata
  58. most sensitive to alcohol > close eyes/touch nose, not something you can control, involuntary
    cerebellum
  59. no specific anatomical position (location), brain arousal/alertness, only time not working is while in a coma, alcohol can suppress this/damage, filters sensory input
    reticular formation
  60. language, interpreted in left hemisphere/body language: interpreted in right hemishpere
    higher mental functions
  61. skull
    meninges
    CSF
    blood brain barrier: tubes that lead into brain and protect it from toxic substances
    protection of the brain, but in spite of all these, still very delicate
  62. if neurons do not get enough oxygen/glucose (blockage or weakness of blood vessels), usually have warning signs called TIA- transient ischemic attack which is not permanent
    cerebrovascular accident (brain injury)
  63. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease > have to do with basal nuclei starting and stopping of movement
    degenerative diseases
  64. signals that go up spine
    sensory (afferent)
  65. signals that go down spine
    motor (efferent)
  66. nerves exit __________ __________, holes in middle of bones of spine
    intervertebral foramina
  67. lots of nerves bunched together
    plexus
  68. nerve from cervical plexus, has to do with breathing > hiccups
    phrenic
  69. longest nerve in the body from brachial
    sciatic
  70. caused by a lack of oxygen
    cerebral palsy
  71. any change in environment (internal or external)
    stimuli
  72. touch (stretch, pressure, vibration)
    mechano receptor
  73. temperature
    thermal receptor
  74. vision, in eyes
    photo receptors
  75. chemicals, ex: oxygen levels
    chemoreceptors
  76. pain, when stimulated > damage to whatever tissue is hurting
    nociceptors
  77. where you are in space, 3 levels:
    1. receptors
    2. circuit (ascending^different), spinal cord
    3. perception, top of brain
    prokryoceptors
  78. whatever input is, ex: hot, cold, soft, hard, etc
    sensation
  79. how we perceive pain, interpretation
    perception
  80. wraps individual axon
    endoneurium
  81. a bunch of individually wrapped axons
    fassicle
  82. wraps fassicle (bunch of axons)
    perineurium
  83. wraps around all fassicles
    epineurium
  84. endoneurium
    fassicle
    perineurium
    epineurium
    nerve

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview