microbio exam 1

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microbio exam 1
2010-02-06 20:11:52
micro biology

intro to micro bio
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  1. spontaneous generation
    suggests that animals such as worms can arise spontaneously from non-living materials.
  2. Pasteur and swan-neck flask
    organisms from the air settle in the bends and sides of the swan-neck flask. didnt touch the fluid, only when the flask was tipped would it touch bacteria.
  3. Redi
    1st to challenge spontaneous generation. proved that maggots do not arise from rotten meat
  4. Tyndall and Cohn
    Tyndall recognized there were heat-resistant microorganisms. then Cohn discovered (endospores).
  5. bioremediation
    using microbes to clean up the enviornment
  6. genetic engineering
    altering an organisms genetic information by changing its nucleic acid sequence.
  7. emerging diseases
    diseases that have increased in incidence in the past 2 decades. TSS, SARS, AIDS, mad cow
  8. Antoni van leeuwenhoek
    first to observe bacteria. used a lens to look at lake water found amoeba, paramecium and euglena.
  9. Eucarya
    • -contain membrane bound nucleus
    • - has internal organelles: ER, golgi
    • -maybe single or multicellular
    • -3 types of eucarya: Algae, fungi, protozoa
  10. Archaea
    • Binarry fission, has flagella
    • have cell wall (no peptidoglycan)
    • found in extreme enviornments (hot springs, thermal vents)
  11. bacteria
    • rod, sphere and spiral shape
    • rigid cell wall
    • binary fission, motile by flagella
  12. viruses
    kill host cells; all forms of life can be infected by; are intracellualr parasites; DNA or RNA
  13. viroids
    only in RNA. smaller than viruses. cause plant disease leading to dwarfism.
  14. prion
    proteinatious infectious agents. no nucleic acid. neurodegenerative diseases with no cures. bovine, mad cow, kuru
  15. Joseph Lister
    introduced aseptic surgery using phenol
  16. total magnification of light microscope
  17. resolution
    ability to distinguish between 2 objects.
  18. refraction
    bending of light rays
  19. bright-field
    inexpensive, uses visible light. views living cells, up to 1,000X magnification. organisms must be stained.
  20. dark field
    can observe living cells. reflected visible light. can see unstained cells.
  21. phase contrast
    good for living cells, and unstained cells. usues bent and direct light.
  22. TEM
    embeded in resin, slice with a glass knife. beam passes through specimen. cant view living specimens. 10-100,000X magnification.
  23. SEM
    3d images. coat specimen with gold. non living specimens. shows surface of organism. 10-100,000X magnification.
  24. basic dyes
    + charge. used for staining
  25. acidic dyes
    -chare. they have no color to them
  26. gram staining steps
    • 1. crystal violet stain.
    • 2. water rinsed, then grams iodine
    • 3.water rinsed. alcohol is added. this would decolorize a G-. and keep color of G+.
    • 4. stain only G- with safranin red
  27. peptidoglycan
    a polymer of NAM and NAG (related to glucose)
  28. LPS
    endotoxin, not secreted, part of G- cell, G- are some times highly pathogenic.
  29. teichoic acid
    G+ has teichoic acids made of phosphates. hold sugars and give the cell a - charge
  30. lysozome
    enzyme in body fluids (tears) breaks the bonds of peptidoglycan.
  31. penecillin effects on a cell wall
    it is more effective against G-, cuz the outer membrane prevents medication from reching site of action (peptidoglycan layer)
  32. acid fast
    stains a small group of organisms that dont readily take up stains. (mycobacterium). high concentrations of lipids.
  33. capsule
    not all cells have one. gel material surrounds the cell. made of glycocalyx. protect bact cells from phagocytosis. ex. bacteria on teeth. protect cells from drying out
  34. endospore
    not all cells make endospores. highly resistant formed by G+ bacteria. not metabolism but can germinate. highly resistant to extreme conditions.
  35. flagella stains
    stains and coats thin flagella, increasing diameter so we can see on the microscope.
  36. shape
  37. shape
  38. shape
  39. shape
  40. shape
  41. diplo
    2 cells
  42. strepto
  43. staphylo
    cluster of cells
  44. cytoplasmic membrane
    selectively permeable. polar head is hydrophilic, and non polar is hydrophobic. phospholipid bilayer. nutrients in a waste out.
  45. cell wall
    surrounds bacterial cell outside cell membrane. gives cell shape. protects from osmotic damage. has peptidoglycan
  46. nucleoid
    single, circular double stranded DNA molecule that contains all the genetic information required by a cell
  47. ribosomes
    • protein synthesis site
    • prokaryote=70s
    • eukaryote=80s.
  48. pili
    some have pili. shorter than flagella
  49. gas vesicles
    small ridgid protein-bound compartments that provide buoyancy to the cell. gases flow freely into the cell making it less dense.
  50. endospores
    not all cells make endospores. formed by G+ bacteria. germinate. survive years or centuries. highly resistant to extreme conditions.
  51. binary fission
    one cell divides into 2. and then growth is exponential.
  52. doubling time equation
  53. biofilms
    mixed community. channels for water movement. has nutrients lots of plasmid transfer.
  54. aseptic techniques
    techniques performed to make sure there is no contamination of the work area, worker, and culture.
  55. streak plate
    main goal is to get isolated colonies.
  56. when are metabolites made?
    during log phase
  57. metabolite
    a product of a chemical reaction in a cell and compounds required for growth, waste materials. flavoring agents and food supplements.
  58. psychrophiles
    -5 to 15C ex: glacier, mountain river.
  59. psychotroph
    20-30C refridgerator, air conditioner
  60. mesophile
    25-45C pathogens, food on the counter
  61. thermophile
    45-70C hot springs, compost pile
  62. hyperthermophile
    70-110C volcano, thermal vent in ocean
  63. obligate anaerobe
    no replication in the presence of oxygen, oxygen may cause death. grow at bottom of the tube.
  64. facultative anaerobe
    grow better with oxygen (more ATP). switch from aerobic to fermentation if no oxygen present. grows more towards the top but generally equally spread.
  65. obligate aerobe
    absolute requirement for oxygen. bacteria need it for ATP production. grows more towards the top.
  66. microaerophile
    requires small amount of oxygen, too much inhibits growth. grows a little bit down from the top.
  67. aerotolerant
    can grow with oxygen, but do not use it to transform energy. neither anaerobic or aerobic. growth they are evenly spread out.
  68. pH
    • most bacteria 6.5-7.5= neutrophiles
    • alkalophiles 8.5+
    • acidophiles below 5.5
    • very few grow under 4
  69. plasmosis
    water loss. if a solute is higher on the outside of a cell, water will move out and the cells membrane shrinks
  70. osmosis
    movement of water across a membrane from dilute solution to a more concentrated solution.
  71. required elements
    C, O, H, N, Su, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe
  72. trace elements
    cobalt, zinc, copper, molybdenum, and maganese
  73. photoautotroph
    uses sunlight and CO2 as carbon source
  74. photoheterotroph
    uses sunlight energy and organic carbon (not CO2).
  75. chemoautotroph
    uses inorganic carbon for energy and CO2 as carbon
  76. chemoheterotroph
    uses organic carbon compounds for energy and carbon source. eukaryotes, humans and other animals.
  77. complex media
    contains variety of ingredients. no exact chemical formula. EX. nutrient agar.
  78. defined media
    precise amounts, replicate it exactly every time, pure. we dont use this because it is too expensive.
  79. selctive media
    inhibits the growth of some organisms while selecting for others. Ex. EMB
  80. differential media
    color change. differentiated between different organisms growing on the same plate.
  81. sterilization
    removes ALL microbes. by filtration, heat, chemicals, and irradiation
  82. disinfection
    eliminates most pathogens. disinfectants are used on surfaces,and antiseptics are used on the skin
  83. pasteurization
    breif heat treatment used to reduce organisms that cause food spoilage. ex. milk, juice, water
  84. what would influence you in selecting a antimicrobial procedure?
    • 1. type of microbe
    • .2 number of microbes initially present
    • 3. enviornmental conditions
    • 4. potential risk of an infection
    • 5. composition of the item
  85. destroying microbes with heat
    its most useful for microbial control fast, safe, reliable, inexpensive. heat sterilizes and disinfects. 121c for 15 mins.
  86. destroying microbes with filtration
    remove microbes from fluids and air. Air- by HEPA filters.
  87. destroying microbes with raidation
    causes damage to the DNA and potentially to plasma membrane. used to sterilize materials that arent heat resistant. Ex. x-rays, gamma rays.
  88. destroying microbes with pressure
    used in pasteurization of foods. not high temp, but pressue. denatures the proteins.
  89. function of autoclave?
    device that uses steam under pressure steralize materials that are stable to heat and moisture.
  90. factors that would influence you on selecting a certain antimicrobial chemical.
    low temperature, reducing available water, adding salt or sugar, drying food.
  91. germicide: alcohol
    commonly used as an antiseptic gel and disinfectant
  92. germicide: aldehydes
    inactivates proteins and DNA
  93. germicide: biguandies
    used in anitseptics cuz of low toxicity. ex: mouth wash
  94. germicide: ethylene oxide
    a gas that destroys microbes including endospores and viruses
  95. germicide: halogen
    chlorine is used as a disinfectant and iodine kills vegetative cells only.
  96. germicide: peroxygens
    hydrogen peroxide. like using it on a cut.
  97. germicide: phenols
    ex: lysol. destroys the plasma membrans and denatures proteins. ex: soaps lotions.
  98. germicide: quats
    non-toxic. the quats positive charge attracts to the negatice charge of the cell surface.
  99. germicide: metal
    silver interferes with enzymes and proteins. ex: cream for burns. its an oxidizer "attacks foreign material.
  100. anabolism
    utilizes energy stored in ATP to synthesize and assemble building blocks of macromollecules that make up the cell
  101. catabolism
    harvest energy released during the breakdown of compounds such as glucose, using it to synthesize ATP
  102. ATP
    energy of all cells
  103. substrate level phosphorylation
    synthesis of ATP using the energy released in exergonic chemical reaction
  104. redox reaction