Chapter 5 flashcards.txt

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Chapter 5 flashcards.txt
2011-01-25 02:18:31
World Music

Chapter 5 flashcards
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  1. Timbre
    The quality of an instrument's sound that distinguishes it from others
  2. Instrumentation
    The choice of instruments that play a certain piece
  3. Orchestration
    The art of combining the instruments in different ways for musical effect
  4. Heterogeneous
    All different instrumentation
  5. Homogeneous
    All similar instrumentation
  6. Resonance
    The way sound waves are filtered and amplified
  7. Resonators
    Hollow chambers or solid pieces that affect an instrument's tone quality and loudness
  8. Sympathetic vibration
    Vibration of one string causes another string tuned identically to vibrate without being plucked
  9. Resonant frequency
    The frequency of a string's vibration, based on its length and tension
  10. Chordophones
    • String instruments - a vibrating string (plucked, bowed, or struck) makes the sound. Varieties include:
    • Zithers
    • Lutes
    • Lyres
    • Harps
  11. Bridge
    A construction on a stringed instrument that lifts the string over the body of the instrument so that it can vibrate freely
  12. Fret
    An intermediate bridge that shortens the vibrating length of a string when the string is pressed down
  13. Glissando
    Sliding pitch effect
  14. Vibrato
    A continuous wavering in pitch
  15. Whammy bar
    A modern innovation on electric guitars used to slide the pitch up and down by varying string tension
  16. Course
    A collection of strings associated with a particular pitch, often used for extra volume
  17. Zither
    • Chordophones in which the strings are parallel to a resonator that extends the entire length. They include the following varieties
    • Stick
    • Tube and curved
    • Raft
    • Flat box
    • Trough
  18. Stick zither
    The sounding board is narrow and round, like a stick. The similar bar zither has a string attached to a curved stick.
  19. Tube zither
    Strings attached around the outside of a tube that serves as a resonator.
  20. Curved-board zither
    Strings attached to the outside of a tube, which is cut away to form a surface for the instrument
  21. Raft zither
    Have a flat sounding board parallel to the strings
  22. Flat box zither
    Have a hollow box resonator
  23. Trough zither
    Have a trough carved in their sounding boards for resonance
  24. Lute
    • Chordophones in which the strings are parallel to the body that holds them with a resonator at one end. Varieties include:
    • Spike lute
    • Fingerboard lute
  25. Spike lute
    Mostly bowed and known as a "spike fiddle." Has a round stick for a neck that extends through the resonator to form a spike
  26. Fingerboard lute
    The neck is a flat surface that the fingers press the strings down to - can have frets or no frets
  27. Lyre
    Chordophones with strings attached to a crossbar held up by two posts with a resonator at the bottom
  28. Harp
    • Chordophones in which the strings are roughly perpendicular to the resonator. Varieties include:
    • Angle harps
    • Bow harps
  29. Angle harp
    Strings are stretched between two pieces of wood joined at an angle
  30. Bow harp
    The strings are stretched between the sides of a single piece of wood shaped like a curved bow
  31. Aerophones
    • Wind instruments - a column of air within the instrument makes the sound. Varieties include:
    • Flutes
    • Double reeds
    • Single reeds
    • Buzzed lip instruments
  32. Air column
    The air inside an aerophone. Only vibrates at certain frequencies
  33. Harmonic series
    Frequencies that an air column can vibrate at
  34. Overblowing
    Making an aerophone instrument vibrate in different frequencies by increasing air pressure
  35. Valves
    Change length of tubing
  36. Slides
    Change length of tubing
  37. Reed
    Piece(s) of wood, plant, or plastic used to get an air column to vibrate
  38. Bore
    The shape of the tubing of an aerophone
  39. Cylindrical bore
    The tubing is roughly the same diameter over the length of the instrument
  40. Conical bore
    The tubing gets gradually larger over the length of the instrument
  41. Flute
    • Aerophones in which the stream of air is focused on a sharp edge. Varieties include:
    • End-blown notch flute
    • Transferse or side-blown flute
    • Duct flute
    • Globular flute
  42. End-blown notch flute
    The player holds the tube straight away from the mouth but blows over the rim of the hole of the tube
  43. Transverse flute
    The player holds the tube perpendicular to his head and blows over an open hole
  44. Duct flute
    The player blows directly into a hole (the duct) that directs the air stream into another hole with a sharp ramp (called a fipple)
  45. Fipple
    Sharp ramp in a duct flute that air is directed over
  46. Globular flute
    The sound body is a roughly spherical chamber rather than a tube
  47. Double reeds
    Aerophones with two pieces of reed tied together at the end of a tube. When under enough air pressure, the reeds vibrate against one another. The tube may have a cylindrical or conical bore.
  48. Single reeds
    A flat piece of wood is tied to the mouthpiece of a tube and blown over, causing it to vibrate. The tube may have cylindrical or conical bore.
  49. Buzzed-lip instruments
    Aerophones, also known as brass, in which the player buzzes his lips at the end of a tube. The tube may have cylindrical or conical bore.
  50. Brass
    Buzzed-lip instrument made of brass.
  51. Membranophones
    • Drums - a membrane (skin) stretched over a resonator or frame makes the sound. Classifications include:
    • Bowl
    • Cylindrical
    • Barrel or waisted
    • Hourglass
    • Conical
    • Goblet
    • Frame drum
  52. Head
    Side of the frame or resonator on a membranophone that has the skin stretched over it
  53. Bowl
    Resonator shaped like a bowl
  54. Cylindrical
    Resonator shaped like a cylinder
  55. Barrel or waisted
    Resonator that bulges outward in the middle
  56. Hourglass
    Resonator shaped like an hourglass
  57. Conical
    Resonator shaped like a cone
  58. Goblet
    Resonator shaped like a goblet
  59. Frame drum
    Skins stretched over hoops or frames - there is effectively no resonator
  60. Idiophones
    • The entire instrument vibrates to make the sound. Varieties include
    • Instruments of definite pitch
    • Instruments of semi-definite pitch
    • Instruments of no definite pitch
  61. Electrophones
    The instrument makes sound through a loudspeaker
  62. Musical style
    The complex and fluid combinations of all the elements of music including pitch and melody, rhythm and loudness, texture, timbre, and musical instruments