Psy 110: Chapter 1
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Psy 110: Chapter 1
Psychology (Pearson, Prentice Hall) Second Edition
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior includes all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such as talking, facial expressions, and movement.
Description, explanation, prediction, and control
Mental processes includes all internal, covert activity of our minds, such as thinking, feeling, remembering, and perceptions.
for behavior is a very important step in the process of forming theories of behavior.
Determining what will happen in the future.
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Wrote about the relationship of the soul to the body (with the two being aspects of the same underlying structure) in
as well as other works.
Saw them as together
Plato (427-347 BC)
Disagreed with Aristotle, saw the soul and the body as being connected.
Aristotle's teacher, felt the soul could exist seperately from the body, a view that has become known as
The "Father of Psychology"
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Rene Descartes (1600's)
French philosopher and mathematician, agreed with Plato and believed that the
was the seat of the soul.
A small organ at the base of the brain.
Wilhelm Wundt was associated with what
Objective introspection (the process of objectively examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities.
focus of this study was the
structure of the mind.
Survival of the fittest
Mary Whiton Calkins
Completed every course and requirement for earning a Ph.D. but was denied that degree by Harvard because she was a Woman.
Mary Whiton Calkins established a psychological laboratory at Wellesley College. Her work was some of the earliest in the area of...
Memory and self
(human memory and the psychology of the self)
Freancis Cecil Sumner
First African-Americans to earn a Ph.D. in psychology at Clark University,
Hispanic psychologist, conducted research in the area of
, focusing on the cultural biases in such tests.
Max Wertheimer (Germany)
Felt that psychological events such as perceiving and sensing could not be broken down into any smaller elements and still be understood.
"The ____ is greater than the ___ of its ___"
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
focusing on perception and sensation, particularly perception of patterns and whole figures.
Sigmund Freud (Austria)
followed by: Adler, Jung, Erikson, and Anna Freud (his daughter)
Modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations.
Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.
Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.
Based on society, culture, environment.
Bio, Psy, Soc
perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system.
Perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universality mental characteristics that all humans share.