quiz #1 – movement disorders

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quiz #1 – movement disorders
2011-02-20 22:47:19
clinical neurology

movement disorders
Show Answers:

  1. true or false – movement disorders are characterized by spontaneous involuntary movement
  2. true or false – movement disorders involve patients that are paralyzed, uncoordinated, and usually have a loss of sensation
    false – they are not paralyzed, not uncoordinated, and do not lose sensation
  3. what are two major neurotransmitters that are associated with movement disorders
    dopamine and acetylcholine
  4. why must acetylcholine and dopamine be in balance of each other
    if they are unbalanced movement disorders will be more prevalent
  5. name some of the types of movement disorders
    • benign essential tremor
    • chorea
    • hemiballismus
    • dystonia
    • athetosis
    • tics
    • parkinsonism
  6. what is the name of the movement disorder that is often confused with Parkinson's
    benign essential tremor
  7. what is the major difference between benign essential tremor and parkinson's disease
    • benign essential tremor does not progress
    • Parkinson's disease will get progressively worse
  8. true or false – alcohol can suppress benign essential tremor
  9. what is the name of a drug that treats benign essential tremor?
  10. true or false – everybody has a normal physiological tremor
  11. what is the rate of the normal physiological tremor that occurs in everybody
    8– 12 Hz
  12. what is a tremor rate for Parkinson's disease
    4 –6
  13. what is pill rolling tremor
    it is a resting tremor that occurs in parkinson's disease, people used to think it looked like a pharmacist counting pills
  14. what will increase a tremor in parkinson's disease
  15. what neurotransmitter in the brain is missing in patients with Parkinson's disease
  16. what is chorea caused by
    dopamine action increased, acetylcholine and GABA action decreased
  17. what kinds of pathologies can cause chorea
    • Huntington's chorea
    • rheumatic fever in childhood
    • drug toxicity-anticonvulsants, antipsychotics
    • estrogen – pregnancy, oral contraceptives
  18. what kind of signs might it patient show if they have chorea
    spontaneous jerks, twitches

    Patients with this condition many times will somehow incorporate the movement into some other action so that it looks normal to other people
  19. what is hemiballismus and what are its characteristics
    violent, gross movements on one side of the body
  20. what is the cause of hemiballismus
    lesion in the subthalamic nucleus after stroke
  21. what is the treatment for hemiballismus
    dopamine antagonist
  22. do TICS go away
  23. what are TICS
    spontaneous, small movements, example – grimaces, facial twitch, vocalizations
  24. what are the causes TICS
    cause is unclear –disinhibition of limbic system
  25. what is Tourette syndrome
    • tics of the vocal cords
    • example – profanity, barking
  26. what is a treatments for TICS
    neuroleptic ( block dopamine receptors) and botulism toxin (block activity at the neuromuscular junction)
  27. what are some of the signs of dystonia
    • torticollis
    • writer's cramp
    • opisthotonus
  28. how is dystonia treated
    treated with anti-cholinergic's
  29. how is dystonia caused
    • drug-induced -
    • idiopathic
  30. a professional musician who practices five hours or more a day, every day is at risk of developing this condition
  31. how can dystonia be treated
    the patient can learn from physical therapy how to inhibit lower motor neurons

  32. what are some of the signs of Parkinson's disease
    tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, festinating gait, flex posture, masked face, sensory cues/blocks for movement
  33. what is the pathology of Parkinson's disease
    loss of dopamine production in the substantia nigra
  34. what causes Parkinson's disease
    • post-encephalitis
    • phenothiazines
    • carbon monoxide poisoning
    • idiopathic
  35. true or false – for patients with Parkinson's disease, going through doors or getting on elevators can be difficult
  36. true or false – patient's with Parkinson's disease will walk better on floors with a checkerboard like appearance then they will a normal floor with no design
  37. true or false – patients with Parkinson's disease will have handwriting that will get progressively smaller as the disease progresses

    the same is true for their voices, their voices will gets softer and softer
  38. what is Bradykinesia
    • slow initiation and progression improvement
    • spontaneous movement
    • no arm swing
    • no facial expression
    • soft voice
  39. what is micrographia
    small handwriting

    often associated with Parkinson's disease
  40. what are some of the stimuli used to increase movement in patients with Parkinson's disease
    • pattern tile floors – they are able to take big steps across the tiles
    • music
    • may respond quickly to threatening stimulus
  41. what is the stimulus that will inhibit movement in it patient with Parkinson's disease
    approaching open doorways or elevators
  42. what is festinating gait
    • short, shuffling steps
    • difficulty stopping
    • no arm swing
    • trunk flexed
  43. what is rigidity
    • resistance to passive movement
    • present at all joints
    • speed of passive movement does not increase resistance
    • often cog-wheel
  44. true or false – in Parkinson's disease the receptor sites for the nerve does not bind with dopamine